Kuttapetty M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Pillai P.P.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Varghese R.J.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Varghese R.J.,Sathyabama University |
And 2 more authors.
Biologia (Poland) | Year: 2014
Rhododendron arboreum of the family Ericaceae represents one of the ancient relict tree species of the genus showing extreme disjunction in the Indian subcontinent. It is represented by two sub-species viz., ssp. arboreum Smith in the forests of north-eastern India (temperate) and spp. nilagiricum (Zenker) Tagg distributed in the southern Western Ghats (tropical) of India with apparently no distribution in the intervening plains. 35 Samples corresponding to different locations in the tropical montane forests of Nilgiris and temperate forests of northeast India were analyzed for distribution of genetic variation using 25 random primers. Relatively high genetic diversity was measured in the temperate populations (Ht = 0.21; Nm = 1.13) than tropical Rhododendrons. The hierarchical analysis of molecular variance showed that among the total variance, 25% is residing within populations while 63% of variance is among regions apparently revealing that disjunct distribution has structured genetic differentiation pattern in this species. Grouping of samples was in conformity with their spatial distribution, which was confirmed by UPGMA cluster analysis and PCA scatter plot. The taxon with its unique distribution pattern and wide cross compatibility between sub-species is however threatened by low genetic variation and gene flow that catalyses it's shifting towards genetic drift and hence long-term conservation strategies need to be formulated particularly for the tropical Rhododendron sub-species. Among the various hypotheses and theory proposed to explain the Malayan affinity in the flora and fauna of Western Ghats, Satpura hypothesis based on dispersal model of distribution largely explains the discontinues distribution of R. arboreum. © 2013 Institute of Botany, Slovak Academy of Sciences.
Screening of tricyclic quinazoline alkaloids in the alkaloidal fraction of Adhatoda beddomei and Adhatoda vasica leaves by high-performance liquid chromatography/electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry
Singh A.,Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility Central Drug Research Institute |
Singh A.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research |
Kumar S.,Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility Central Drug Research Institute |
Reddy T.J.,Sophisticated Analytical Instrument Facility Central Drug Research Institute |
And 4 more authors.
Rapid Communications in Mass Spectrometry | Year: 2015
RATIONALE Adhatoda beddomei and Adhatoda vasica are popular Ayurvedic medicinal plants in India, belonging to the family Acanthaceae. Tricyclic quinazoline alkaloids are found to be the most abundant in these plants which are responsible for broad-spectrum medicinal properties. This study aims to seek identification and characterization of those alkaloids based on their fragmentation patterns. METHODS A method was developed to elucidate the main fragmentation pathways of tricyclic quinazoline alkaloids in positive ion mode using high-performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrupole time-of-flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC/ESI-QTOF-MS/MS). Chromatographic separation was carried on a Supelco Discovery HS C18 column (15 cm × 4.6 mm, 3 μm) with 0.1% formic acid aqueous solution and acetonitrile as a mobile phase. RESULTS In full scan mass spectra, protonated molecules were observed for all the quinazoline alkaloids. Ring cleavages of the tricyclic quinazoline moiety were observed in MS2 spectra and the characteristic ions provide valuable structural information of these alkaloids. Fragmentation pathways and fragment ion structures were proposed in two groups of quinazoline alkaloids. CONCLUSIONS The established fragmentation patterns have been successfully used to identify 23 tricyclic quinazoline alkaloids in the alkaloidal fraction of A. beddomei and A. vasica. Copyright © 2015 John Wiley & Sons, Ltd.
Bindu S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Rameshkumar K.B.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Kumar B.,Central Drug Research Institute |
Singh A.,Central Drug Research Institute |
Anilkumar C.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode
Industrial Crops and Products | Year: 2014
Rauvolfia species are important medicinal plants due to the presence of bioactive indole alkaloids, especially reserpine. Reserpine content in the roots of six Rauvolfia species (R. hookeri, R. micrantha, R. serpentina, R. tetraphylla, R. verticillata, and R. vomitoria), were detected by high performance liquid chromatography coupled with electrospray ionization quadrapole time of flight tandem mass spectrometry (HPLC-ESI-QToF-MS/MS) and estimated by validated high performance thin layer chromatography (HPTLC) method. Reserpine has positively been identified in the crude alkaloid extracts through HPLC-ESI-QToF-MS/MS method by exact mass, isotopic peak pattern, tandem mass fragmentation pattern, and with authentic standard match. Excellent separation of reserpine was achieved in HPTLC using the solvent system hexane:acetone:methanol (6:3.5:0.5, v/v). The HPTLC estimation method was validated in terms of linearity, specificity, detection limit, quantitation limit, precision, accuracy, and repeatability. Among the six Rauvolfia species, reserpine content was highest in the exotic species R. vomitoria (689.5. μg/g, dry wt.), while among the five Indian species the highest reserpine content was for R. tetraphylla (450.7. μg/g, dry wt.). In the most common Indian Rauvolfia species, R. serpentina, the reserpine content was comparatively low (254.8. μg/g, dry wt.). The endemic species R. micrantha possesses significant quantity of reserpine (422.1. μg/g, dry wt.), making it a potential candidate for developing as a source of reserpine, replacing R. serpentina and R. tetraphylla that are endangered due to over exploitation. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Kumar S.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Bajpai V.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
Bajpai V.,Academy of Scientific and Innovative Research AcSIR |
Singh A.,CSIR - Central Electrochemical Research Institute |
And 6 more authors.
Analytical Methods | Year: 2015
Medicinal plants of the genus Rauwolfia (Apocynaceae) are extensively used as folk medicines worldwide. Its antihypertensive activity is well known due to the presence of monoterpene indole alkaloids (MIAs). The therapeutic potential of the herbal medicines are affected due to variation of bioactive phytoconstituents. Therefore, a rapid and validated method was developed for fingerprinting of roots and leaves of six Rauwolfia species by direct analysis in real time mass spectrometry (DART-MS). Seventeen bioactive MIAs were tentatively identified on the basis of their exact mass measurement from the intact plant parts. Furthermore, principal component analysis (PCA) was used to analyze the DART-MS data of six Rauwolfia species to identify the chemical markers. Thirteen and twenty-three chemical markers were identified from the roots and leaves which were able to discriminate among six Rauwolfia species. This method was also cross-validated for the rapid identification, authentication and quality control of Rauwolfia species. © The Royal Society of Chemistry 2015.
Hussain A.,Research Scholar in Manonmaniam Sundarnar University |
Anilkumar C.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2016
In a study on the population structure, dynamics and conservation of Syzygium travancoricum Gamble. an economically important and critically endangered tree of southern Western Ghats region. Three species of insects belonging to Dipteara and Coleoptera were found to be associated with this species as pests. The first one is the (oriental fruit fly) Bactrocera dorsalis (Hendel) is a very destructive pest of fruit and seed belongs to the order Diptera, the second one is a seed attacking weevil Ochyromera sp. is a very destructive pest of seeds belongs to the order Coleoptera and third one is the leaf cutting weevil Deporaus marginatus (Pascoe) belongs to the order Coleoptera which damaging the young foliage of the young plant. The adult feeding produces 'window panes' on young leaves. The first two species is very dangerous to the fruit-seed infestation. All the above three species of pests leads to the major casual factor to the untimely endangerment of the host plant in their natural habitat. Copyright © EM International.
Krishnaraj M.V.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Mohanan N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode
Webbia | Year: 2012
Shareef S.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Santhosh Kumar E.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode |
Roy P.E.,Jawaharlal Nehru Tropical Botanic Garden and Research Institute Palode
Phytotaxa | Year: 2013
A new species of Syzygium, S. chemunjianum is described and illustrated from the Agasthyamala Biosphere Reserve, southern Western Ghats, Kerala, India. It is similar to S. tamilnadensis but differs from it in habit, colour and nature of blaze, shape of leaves, number of intramarginal nerves, position of inflorescence, the colour, size and shape of fruits and size of seeds. © 2013 Magnolia Press.