Kakinada, India

The college it is situated at JNTU Kakinada Campus, Pithapuram Road in Kakinada, of the East Godavari district district, Andhra Pradesh, in the large area of 110 acres in Kakinada, north of the Indian state of Andhra Pradesh . Established in 1946, as the 'The College of Engineering, Vizagpatnam' at the then Composite Madras Presidency, apart from imparting training to engineering, management, science, humanities and languages languages in Andhra Pradesh and those from friendly states, the college also plays an advisory role to the ' Department of Technical Education Government of Andhra Pradesh ' ,'andhra Pradesh State Council of Higher Education', State Board of Technical Education and Training and also conducts ECET For admission for Diploma Holders and for B.Sc. Degree Holders in accordance with G.O.Ms.No:24, G.O.Ms.No:25, dated:28.06.2006 and G.O.Ms.No:19 or Diploma Holders and G.O.Ms.No.57 & G.O.Ms.No58 dated:12.05.2008 ., and college is involved in research projects and experimentation. Wikipedia.


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Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Journal of Inflammation Research | Year: 2010

Lupus is a chronic, systemic inflammatory condition in which eicosanoids, cytokines, nitric oxide (NO), a deranged immune system, and genetics play a significant role. Our studies revealed that an imbalance in the pro- and antioxidants and NO and an alteration in the metabolism of essential fatty acids exist in lupus. The current strategy of management includes administration of nonsteroidal anti-inflammatory drugs such as hydroxychloroquine and immunosuppressive drugs such as corticosteroids. Investigational drugs include the following: 1) belimumab, a fully human monoclonal antibody that specifically recognizes and inhibits the biological activity of B-lymphocyte stimulator, also known as B-cell-activation factor of the TNF family; 2) stem cell transplantation; 3) rituximab, a chimeric monoclonal antibody against CD20, which is primarily found on the surface of B-cells and can therefore destroy B-cells; and 4) IL-27, which has potent anti-inflammatory actions. Our studies showed that a regimen of corticosteroids and cyclophosphamide, and methods designed to enhance endothelial NO synthesis and augment antioxidant defenses, led to induction of long-lasting remission of the disease. These results suggest that methods designed to modulate molecular signatures of the disease process and suppress inflammation could be of significant benefit in lupus. Some of these strategies could be vagal nerve stimulation, glucose-insulin infusion, and administration of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and nitrolipids by themselves or their stable synthetic analogs that are known to suppress inflammation and help in the resolution and healing of the inflammation-induced damage. These strategies are likely to be useful not only in lupus but also in other conditions, such as rheumatoid arthritis, scleroderma, ischemia-reperfusion injury to the myocardium, ischemic heart disease, and sepsis. © 2010 Das, publisher and licensee Dove Medical Press Ltd.


Rao N.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
International Journal of Advanced Manufacturing Technology | Year: 2011

This paper presents dimensional synthesis of a 3-RPS parallel manipulator according to the limitations on the actuating link lengths and on the range of motion of the spherical joints. The synthesis of the manipulator consists of determining the dimensions of a moving platform and a fixed base along with the directions of revolute joint axes such that a point on the moving platform passes through a set of prescribed positions in space. The dimensions of the moving platform are determined using a hybrid optimization method called GA-simplex method. While determining the dimensions of the fixed base, the limitations on the motion of the joints are considered to design a practical manipulator. The synthesis procedure presented confines to that class of problems where the number of prescribed positions required to complete a task is more than the number of positions a parallel manipulator can offer. The practical applications include automated assembly, contour machining, etc. A numerical example for the synthesis with ten positions is presented. This paper also presents direct kinematic equations for the manipulators with non-equilateral triangular platforms in order to validate the results of the numerical example. © 2010 Springer-Verlag London Limited.


Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

Cardiac arrhythmias cause significant morbidity and mortality in patients with coronary heart disease, hypertension, and congestive cardiac failure and in the elderly. Inflammation, oxidative injury, altered myocyte metabolism, extracellular matrix remodeling and fibrosis initiate and perpetuate cardiac arrhythmias, especially atrial fibrillation. Enhanced myeloperoxidase (MPO) activity by infiltrating activated leukocytes could bind to myocardial cells and cause fibrosis resulting in the initiation and progression of arrhythmias. Supplementation of eicosapentaenoic and docosahexaenoic acids (EPA and DHA, respectively) suppresses arrhythmias. EPA and DHA form precursors to anti-inflammatory lipid molecules: lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins that are known to suppress inflammation, have anti-fibrotic actions and inhibit MPO activity. Hence, it is likely that leukocyte and/or myocardial deficiency of EPA and DHA and consequent reduced formation of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins and maresins enhance inflammation and MPO activity that leads to myocardial damage and fibrosis and initiation and progression of cardiac arrhythmias. Based on these evidences, I propose that lipoxins, resolvins and protectins function as endogenous anti-arrhythmic molecules and their stable synthetic analogs could be useful in the management of cardiac arrhythmias. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Medical Hypotheses | Year: 2011

An increase in pro-inflammatory cytokines, decrease in endothelial nitric oxide (eNO) and adiponectin levels and an alteration in hypothalamic peptides and gastrointestinal hormones such as incretins and cholecystokinin that regulate satiety, hunger, and food intake occur in metabolic syndrome. Thus, metabolic syndrome is a low-grade systemic inflammatory condition and could be due to inappropriate cross-talk between the peripheral tissues and the hypothalamic centers implying that methods designed to restore these two abnormalities to normal could be of significant benefit in metabolic syndrome. Vagus nerve stimulation has been shown to suppress inflammation and acetylcholine, the principal vagal neurotransmitter, modulates the actions of several hypothalamic peptides and incretins and cholecystokinin. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that vagus nerve stimulation could be of significant benefit in the management of the metabolic syndrome. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.


Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada | Das U.N.,Bio Science Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Diabetic macular edema and retinopathy are low-grade inflammatory conditions. Infusions of antitumor necrosis factor-α (anti-TNF-α) antibody and antivascular endothelial growth factor (anti-VEGF) antibody have been shown to be at least partly effective in the treatment of diabetic macular edema and proliferative diabetic retinopathy. Intravitreal therapy of diabetic macular edema by the anti-TNF-α antibody has been found to produce significant side effects and anti-VEGF therapy to be ineffective. Nevertheless, these studies have indicated that the suppression of TNF-α and other proinflammatory cytokines and VEGF could be of benefit in diabetic macular edema and retinopathy. The retina is rich in polyunsaturated fatty acids, especially in ω-3, and several studies have shown that polyunsaturated fatty acids prevent diabetic retinopathy. Lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins derived from various polyunsaturated fatty acids possess anti-inflammatory actions and suppress the production of interleukin-6, and TNF-α and VEGF have antiangiogenic actions. In view of these evidences, I propose that lipoxins, resolvins, and protectins could be of significant benefit in the prevention and management of diabetic macular edema and retinopathy. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada | Das U.N.,BioScience Research Center
Nutrition | Year: 2013

Autism has a strong genetic and environmental basis in which inflammatory markers and factors concerned with synapse formation, nerve transmission, and information processing such as brain-derived neurotrophic factor (BDNF), polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs): arachidonic (AA), eicosapentaenoic (EPA), and docosahexaenoic acids (DHA) and their products and neurotransmitters: dopamine, serotonin, acetylcholine, γ-aminobutyric acid, and catecholamines and cytokines are altered. Antioxidants, vitamins, minerals, and trace elements are needed for the normal metabolism of neurotrophic factors, eicosanoids, and neurotransmitters, supporting reports of their alterations in autism. But, the exact relationship among these factors and their interaction with genes and proteins concerned with brain development and growth is not clear. It is suggested that maternal infections and inflammation and adverse events during intrauterine growth of the fetus could lead to alterations in the gene expression profile and proteomics that results in dysfunction of the neuronal function and neurotransmitters, alteration(s) in the metabolism of PUFAs and their metabolites resulting in excess production of proinflammatory eicosanoids and cytokines and a deficiency of anti-inflammatory cytokines and bioactive lipids that ultimately results in the development of autism. Based on these evidences, it is proposed that selective delivery of BDNF and methods designed to augment the production of anti-inflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids and PUFAs may prevent, arrest, or reverse the autism disease process. © 2013 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Current Cardiovascular Risk Reports | Year: 2010

Essential fatty acids and their metabolites (γ-linolenic acid [GLA], dihomo-GLA, arachidonic acid, eicosapentaenoic acid, and docosahexaenoic acid; prostaglandin E1; prostacyclin [PGI2]; PGI3; lipoxins; resolvins; protectins; maresins; and nitrolipids) prevent platelet aggregation, produce vascular relaxation, inhibit neutrophil degranulation and superoxide formation, inhibit platelet activation, possess peroxisome proliferator-activated receptor-γ ligand activity, and release nitric oxide. Thus, they lower blood pressure, are anti-arrhythmic and anti-inflammatory in nature, reduce low-density lipoprotein cholesterol, ameliorate the adverse actions of homocysteine, activate telomerase, and have cytoprotective properties-actions that prevent atherosclerosis and cardiovascular disease. Because coronary heart disease (CHD) and atherosclerosis are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions, it is likely that reduced formation of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and nitrolipids plays a significant role in the pathogenesis of CHD. Hence, development of stable synthetic analogues of lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, and maresins may form a new therapeutic approach to CHD and other low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Nutrition | Year: 2010

Obesity, which is assuming alarming proportions, has been attributed to genetic factors, hypothalamic dysfunction, and intestinal gut bacteria and an increase in the consumption of energy-dense food. Obesity predisposes to the development of type 2 diabetes mellitus, hypertension, coronary heart disease, and certain forms of cancer. Recent studies have shown that the intestinal bacteria in obese humans and mice differ from those in lean that could trigger a low-grade systemic inflammation. Consumption of a calorie-dense diet that initiates and perpetuates obesity could be due to failure of homeostatic mechanisms that regulate appetite, food consumption, and energy balance. Hypothalamic factors that regulate energy needs of the body, control appetite and satiety, and gut bacteria that participate in food digestion play a critical role in the onset of obesity. Incretins, cholecystokinin, brain-derived neurotrophic factor, leptin, long-chain fatty acid coenzyme A, endocannabinoids and vagal neurotransmitter acetylcholine play a role in the regulation of energy intake, glucose homeostasis, insulin secretion, and pathobiology of obesity and type 2 diabetes mellitus. Thus, there is a cross-talk among the gut, liver, pancreas, adipose tissue, and hypothalamus. Based on these evidences, it is clear that management of obesity needs a multifactorial approach. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.


Das U.N.,UND Life science | Das U.N.,Bio Science Research Center | Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Critical Care | Year: 2013

The usefulness of n-3 fatty acids, γ-linolenic acid and antioxidants in the critically ill is controversial. I propose that adverse outcome in the critically ill is due to excess production of proinflammatory cytokines and eicosanoids from polyunsaturated fatty acids (PUFAs), while generation of anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs may lead to a favorable outcome. Hence, I suggest that measurement of plasma levels of various cytokines, free radicals, and proinflammatory and anti-inflammatory products of PUFAs and correlating them to the clinical picture may pave the way to identify prognostic markers and develop newer therapeutic strategies to prevent and manage critical illness. © 2013 BioMed Central Ltd.


Das U.N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Technological University Kakinada
Nutrition | Year: 2011

Proinflammatory cytokines and essential fatty acids (EFAs) and their metabolites are altered in coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, cancer, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases, indicating that these diseases not only are low-grade systemic inflammatory conditions but also have defects in the metabolism of EFAs. EFAs and their metabolites such as eicosanoids, lipoxins, resolvins, protectins, maresins, and nitrolipids are biologically active molecules that regulate gene expression and enzyme activity, modulate inflammation, the immune response, and gluconeogenesis by direct and indirect pathways, function directly as agonists of a number of G-protein-coupled receptors, and thus regulate several cellular processes. EFAs and their metabolites activate phosphatidylinositol 3-kinase/murine thymoma viral oncogene homolog 1 (Akt) and p44/42 mitogen-activated protein kinases and stimulate gluconeogenesis and cell proliferation by Ca2+, phospholipase C/protein kinase, events that are also necessary for stem cell proliferation. Stem cells are pluripotent and expected to be of benefit in the management of many clinical conditions. Therefore, I propose that the beneficial actions of EFAs and their metabolites seen in coronary heart disease, stroke, diabetes mellitus, hypertension, atherosclerosis, cancer, depression, schizophrenia, Alzheimer's disease, and collagen vascular diseases could be ascribed to their ability to enhance the proliferation and differentiation of embryonic stem cells in addition to their capacity to suppress inflammation. © 2011 Elsevier Inc.

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