Koul M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Rai A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Recent Patents on Biotechnology | Year: 2010
Immunization by vaccination is the most suitable and safest method for preventing infectious diseases in the poultry worldwide. Vaccines alone cannot effectively protect birds from variety of pathogens under field conditions. The combined use of potent immunostimulants in vaccines is an alternative to increase the efficacy of vaccines that can be achieved by the development of better adjuvant. One such adjuvant is cytokine; cytokines have been used extensively as adjuvant in vaccines and are responsible for the type and extent of an immune response following vaccination. Although the innate immune system in birds is not fully characterized but their immune system is very much similar to that of mammals, and moreover with the recent discovery of a number of avian cytokine genes it is now possible to study their effectiveness in enhancing the immune response during vaccination. This review focuses on the recent studies and developments involving the role of immunomodulating agents especially cytokines of avian origin in poultry vaccines. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd.
Ahirwar B.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Bhowmick A.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Annals of Biology | Year: 2016
Major insect-pests in mungbean during summer season (March-May) crop are: thrips, Caliothrips indicus Bagnall; green jassid, Empoasca kerri Pruthi and whitefly, Bemisia tabaci (Genn.). The population of C. indicus, E. kerri and B. tabaci ranged from 0.87 to 6.91, 0.40 to 3.81 per six leaves and 1.23 to 5.53%, respectively. Maximum population of these pests was observed in 17th standard week of April. Thrip population was positively significantly correlated with sunshine hours, whereas whitefly population was negatively correlated with wind speed (km/h). The effect of other abiotic factors like maximum and minimum temperature, morning and evening RH (%) and evaporation (mm) was found non-significant.
Reddy D.D.,Indian Institute of Science |
Kushwaha S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Srivastava S.,Indian Institute of Science |
Khamparia R.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014
The management of crop residues coupled with external nutrient inputs is important for improving and conserving soil fertility and productivity. We assessed the long-term effects of three wheat residue management options (RMO) (residue burning, incorporation, and surface retention) in combination with three supplementary nutrient inputs (SNI) [control, fertilizer, and farmyard manure (FYM)] on phosphorus (P) fractions and adsorption behavior of a Vertisol under soybean-wheat system. Wheat residue incorporation and retention improved the labile inorganic P [sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-Pi)] by 3.2 and 5.0 mg kg-1 and the labile organic P (NaHCO3-Po) by 2.4 and 4.2 mg kg-1, respectively, as compared to residue burning. The soils under residue incorporation and retention had 38 and 26% more moderately labile organic P [sodium hydroxide (NaOH-Po)], respectively, than the soil under residue burning. The SNI either as fertilizer or FYM further enhanced NaHCO3-Pi, NaHCO3-Po, and NaOH-Po. In contrast, less labile P fractions [hydrochloric acid (HCl)-P and residual-P] remained unaffected by RMO and SNI treatments. Residue retention or incorporation decreased P adsorption over the residue burning for all the three nutrient inputs. The P-adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir equation (R2 ranged from 0.970 to 0.994). The P-adsorption maximum (b), bonding energy constant (k), differential P-buffering capacity (DPBC), and standard P requirement (SPR) were lower with residue incorporation or surface retention than with residue burning. The SPR followed the order residue burning > incorporation > retention for RMOs and control > fertilizer > FYM for SNI treatments. The NaHCO3-Pi, NaHCO3-P0, and NaOH-Po had negative correlation with P-adsorption parameters and showed positive correlation with soybean P uptake. Wheat residue incorporation or retention plus FYM could be an effective strategy for enhancing the P fertility of Vertisols under a soybean-wheat system. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.
Thakur R.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Sawarkar S.D.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Vaishya U.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Singh M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Journal of the Indian Society of Soil Science | Year: 2011
The status of nutrients - their depletion and build-up in soil, and crop productivity after thirty-six years (1972-73 to 2008-09) of intensive cropping were studied under continuous use of various inorganic fertilizers and organic manure in a Vertisol. Results showed that the application of recommended dose of N, P and K (20:80:20 kg ha-1 to soybean and 120:80:40 kg ha-1 to wheat) with organic manure @ 15 t FYM ha-1 resulted in 145 and 292% increase in soybean and wheat yields, respectively over control. Conjoint use of FYM with 100% NPK substantially improved the organic carbon status by 3.9 g kg-1, as well as available N, P and S by 126.8, 25.5 and 28.5 kg ha-1 in soil over its initial values, thereby indicating significant contribution towards sustaining the soil health. On the other hand, omission of S in 100% NPK-S treatment caused a continuous depletion (5.8 %) in soil S status over initial value. A declining trend (179 to 314.8 kg ha-1) from its initial value (370.0 kg ha-1) of available K status was also observed as a result of continuous cropping; this indicates considerable mining of available K from the soil. However, the decline of K was of lower magnitude with 100% NPK+FYM (14.9%) and 150% NPK (20.0%) treatments indicating the need to raise the level of K fertilizer application to meet the demand of crops. However, the fertility of the soil appears to be adversely affected due to the imbalanced use of nutrients viz., NP or N alone. Thus, the balanced use of fertilizers continuously either alone or in combination with organic manure is necessary for sustaining soil fertility and productivity of crops.
Jha A.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Kewat M.L.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Upadhyay V.B.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Vishwakarma S.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Indian Journal of Agronomy | Year: 2011
Field experiments were carried out from 2004-05 to 2008-09 at Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh to evaluate the four tillage practices (direct seeding in dry fields, direct seeding of sprouted seeds in puddled field by drum seeder, manual transplanting, and mechanical transplanting) in rice and four sowing methods (conventional till sowing, zero till sowing, strip till sowing and bed planting) in wheat on productivity, economics and energetics of rice (Oryza sativa L.) - wheat (Triticum aestivam L. emend. Fiori & Paol.) cropping system. Direct seeding of sprouted seeds in puddled field by drum seeder gave significantly higher grain yield of rice (5.70 t/ha), followed by direct seeding under dry field (5.32 t/ha) and mechanical transplanting (5.21 t/ha), whereas the lowest yield was recorded in manual transplanted rice (5.11 t/ha). The wheat sown after dry seeding of rice in dry field produced significantly higher grain yield (4.26 t/ha) than other sowing methods of rice. In wheat, strip till drilling recorded the highest values of yield attributing characters and grain yield (4.56 t/ha) than other methods of sowing. Consequently, strip till sown wheat after preceding rice grown under direct seeding of sprouted seeds in puddled field by drum seeder produced higher combined grain yields for entire cropping system in rice equivalent yield (11.88 t/ ha), net monetary returns (49,116/ha) and B: C ratio (3.2), when compared with other methods of sowing . Moreover, direct seeding of sprouted seeds of rice followed by strip till sowing of wheat gave higher water productivity and energetics than that of other combinations of tillage and sowing methods by ensuring timely and cheep sowing without sacrificing the crop yields.
Selvamuthukumaran M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Muthukumaran S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Shukla S.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2016
Spray dried bifidus milk powder was prepared by supplementing cow milk with different level of additives to obtain slurry of desired concentration. The slurry was pasteurized, cooled and inoculated with Bifidobacterium bifidum, incubated and dried to produce a bifidus milk powder. Among the various bifidus milk powder prepared, the slurry of mention the level total soluble solids exhibited good organoleptic characteristics and it has been standardized for further analysis. Moisture content, bulk density, insolubility index, hydroxymethyl furfural and thiobarbituric acid value of bifidus milk powder significantly increased, while the reflectance value significantly decreased during storage. The B. bifidum count significantly reduced and the bacterium were not detected at the end of the mention storage duration. As such the sentence is not acceptable in the abstract. The reconstituted bifidus milk powder was considered acceptable with an overall acceptability score of 6.97 on a nine-point Hedonic scale and showed a shelf stability of 120 days at ambient temperature condition (27 ± 2 °C). © 2016 Association of Food Scientists & Technologists (India)
Keram K.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014
A field experiment was conducted under All India Co-ordinated Research Project on "Micro, secondary nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and plants" during two consecutive years 2010-11 and 2011-12 with fallow-wheat cropping sequence on a Typic Haplustert at the Research Farm of Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) to study the influence of Zn application on its translocation into various plant parts of wheat and its impact on chemical composition and quality of grain. The recommended dose of N, P and K was applied @ 120 N: 60 P2O5:40 K2O kg ha-1 in combination with Zn @ 0,1.25,2.5,5,10 and 20 kg ha-1 as zinc sulphate. The results revealed that the grain and straw yields increased with the increasing levels of Zn as compared to NPK alone. The maximum pooled grain yield 4.661 ha-1 was observed in the treatment 20 kg Zn ha-1, while the maximum pooled grain 3.88 t ha-1 in the control plots (100% NPK alone). The Zn, N and K contents in grain and straw of wheat, significantly increased with the increasing levels of Zn @ 2.5,5,10 and 20 kg ha-1. However, the P content in both grain and straw was in decreasing order with increasing levels of Zn. Further, the quality parameters like crude and true protein, wet gluten and total carbohydrate were also increased with increasing levels of Zn as compared to NPK alone.
Singh M.,Indian Institute of Science |
Wanjari R.H.,Indian Institute of Science |
Dwivedi A.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Dalal R.,University of Queensland
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2012
Soybean-wheat systems are the major grain production systems on vertisols in Madhya Pradesh, India. A study on yield response to nutrients (N, P, K, S and Zn) and estimation of N2 fixation by soybean under different nutrient combinations was studied in a 33-year-old, long-term experiment on soybean- wheat-maize system. For estimation of N2 fixation, annual input-output N balance technique was used. The experiment was initiated in June 1972, comprising eight treatments, viz. control (no fertiliser and no manure), 100% N, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + 15 t farmyard manure (FYM), 100% NPK + Zn and 100% NPK - S with four replications arranged in a randomised block design. The amount of N applied (100%) to each crop of soybean, wheat and maize was 20, 120 and 80 kg ha-1, P (100%) 35, 35 and 26 kg ha -1 and K (100%) 16, 32 and 16 kg ha-1, respectively. FYM was applied one week before the onset of monsoons. Both soybean and wheat yields responded to applied N and P during all these years. The yield response to K was observed after 10 years. The estimated amount of N2 fixed by soybean annually varied from 62.8 to 161.1 kg ha-1; however, the net gain of N in soil after offsetting the N derived by soybean from soil varied from 24.2 to 66.5 kg ha-1 annually.Maximum N gain was recorded on application of P. There was a linear relationship between the amount of harvestable biomass N and residual biomass N, whereas quantity of N added to soil has a curvilinear relationship with the harvestable biomass N. The highest percentage of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) was recorded in the control treatment, but the highest amount of N2 fixed was found in the 100% NPK treatment. Balanced use of nutrient is the best option to harness the N 2 fixation potential of soybean. © Cambridge University Press 2012.
Tomar R.K.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2010
Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.) is most important pulse crop in Madhya Pradesh. Front line demonstration were conducted during the post rainy season at 48 farmers fields, to demonstrate production potential and economic benefit of improved technologies consisting suitable varieties (cvs 'JG -322', 'JG-11'), integrated nutrient management (20:60:20:30 NPKS kg/ha + Rhizobium + PSB @ 20 g/kg seed), integrated pest management (deep ploughing + seed treatment with Tricoderma viride @ 5 g/kg seed + Fermone trap @ 10/ha + Bird perchers @ 50/ha + quanalphos @ 1.2 l with 600 l of water) at Tikamgarh district of Bundelkhand Agro-climate zone during Rabi season 2004-05 to 2008-09. The improved technologies recorded mean yield of 19.65 q/ha which was 71.88 per cent higher than that obtained with farmers practices of 11.44 q/ha. Improved technologies gave higher mean net return of Rs. 24611/ha with a benefit cost ratio 2.99 as compared to local practice (Rs. 11820/ha, benefit cost ratio 2.58).
Soni M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya |
Jain K.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Indian Journal of Agricultural Sciences | Year: 2015
A field experiment was carried out during 2010 and 2011 at the Research Farm of Krishi Nagar, J N Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (Madhya Pradesh). The treatments consisted of weed control practices, viz. bispyribac sodium, penoxsulam, pyrazosulfuron-ethyl, cyhalofop-butyl + almix, fenoxaprop-p-ethyl + almix and control as main plot treatment and three day time application (morning, afternoon and evening) as sub plot treatment and laidout in split plot design in three replications. In rice (Oryza sativa L.)-weed ecosystem the solar energy utilization by weeds was maximum under control plot (836.46 and 786.52 lakh k cal/ha) where transplanting of crop was done without controlling of weeds, whereas pyrazosulfuron-ethyl treated plot registered lowest energy utilization (285.21 and 286.78 lakh k cal/ha) by weeds during both the years. The energy utilization by crop grain and straw was maximum with post emergence application of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl (527.83 and 533.65; 274.20 and 280.00 lakh k cal/ha). The studies on NPK removal by weeds and uptake by crop showed that the weed control treatments caused significant variations on these parameters. Application of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl also reduced the N (4.90 and 4.33 kg/ha), P (0.34 and 0.29 kg/ ha) and K (3.76 and 3.30 kg/ha) removal by weeds as compared to other herbicides and weedy check during both the years. The N (166.54 and 169.19 kg/ha), P (49.10 and 49.64 kg/ha) and K (170.95 and 173.13 kg/ha) uptake by crop was recorded higher with the application of pyrazosulfuron-ethyl. However, different day time application of post emergence herbicides was found statistically non-significant for energy and nutrient utilization by weeds and crop.