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Koul M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya | Rai A.,Indian Veterinary Research Institute
Recent Patents on Biotechnology | Year: 2010

Immunization by vaccination is the most suitable and safest method for preventing infectious diseases in the poultry worldwide. Vaccines alone cannot effectively protect birds from variety of pathogens under field conditions. The combined use of potent immunostimulants in vaccines is an alternative to increase the efficacy of vaccines that can be achieved by the development of better adjuvant. One such adjuvant is cytokine; cytokines have been used extensively as adjuvant in vaccines and are responsible for the type and extent of an immune response following vaccination. Although the innate immune system in birds is not fully characterized but their immune system is very much similar to that of mammals, and moreover with the recent discovery of a number of avian cytokine genes it is now possible to study their effectiveness in enhancing the immune response during vaccination. This review focuses on the recent studies and developments involving the role of immunomodulating agents especially cytokines of avian origin in poultry vaccines. © 2010 Bentham Science Publishers Ltd. Source

Keram K.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Ecology, Environment and Conservation | Year: 2014

A field experiment was conducted under All India Co-ordinated Research Project on "Micro, secondary nutrients and pollutant elements in soils and plants" during two consecutive years 2010-11 and 2011-12 with fallow-wheat cropping sequence on a Typic Haplustert at the Research Farm of Department of Soil Science and Agricultural Chemistry, J.N. Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya, Jabalpur (M.P.) to study the influence of Zn application on its translocation into various plant parts of wheat and its impact on chemical composition and quality of grain. The recommended dose of N, P and K was applied @ 120 N: 60 P2O5:40 K2O kg ha-1 in combination with Zn @ 0,1.25,2.5,5,10 and 20 kg ha-1 as zinc sulphate. The results revealed that the grain and straw yields increased with the increasing levels of Zn as compared to NPK alone. The maximum pooled grain yield 4.661 ha-1 was observed in the treatment 20 kg Zn ha-1, while the maximum pooled grain 3.88 t ha-1 in the control plots (100% NPK alone). The Zn, N and K contents in grain and straw of wheat, significantly increased with the increasing levels of Zn @ 2.5,5,10 and 20 kg ha-1. However, the P content in both grain and straw was in decreasing order with increasing levels of Zn. Further, the quality parameters like crude and true protein, wet gluten and total carbohydrate were also increased with increasing levels of Zn as compared to NPK alone. Source

Singh M.,Indian Institute of Science | Wanjari R.H.,Indian Institute of Science | Dwivedi A.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya | Dalal R.,University of Queensland
Experimental Agriculture | Year: 2012

Soybean-wheat systems are the major grain production systems on vertisols in Madhya Pradesh, India. A study on yield response to nutrients (N, P, K, S and Zn) and estimation of N2 fixation by soybean under different nutrient combinations was studied in a 33-year-old, long-term experiment on soybean- wheat-maize system. For estimation of N2 fixation, annual input-output N balance technique was used. The experiment was initiated in June 1972, comprising eight treatments, viz. control (no fertiliser and no manure), 100% N, 100% NP, 100% NPK, 150% NPK, 100% NPK + 15 t farmyard manure (FYM), 100% NPK + Zn and 100% NPK - S with four replications arranged in a randomised block design. The amount of N applied (100%) to each crop of soybean, wheat and maize was 20, 120 and 80 kg ha-1, P (100%) 35, 35 and 26 kg ha -1 and K (100%) 16, 32 and 16 kg ha-1, respectively. FYM was applied one week before the onset of monsoons. Both soybean and wheat yields responded to applied N and P during all these years. The yield response to K was observed after 10 years. The estimated amount of N2 fixed by soybean annually varied from 62.8 to 161.1 kg ha-1; however, the net gain of N in soil after offsetting the N derived by soybean from soil varied from 24.2 to 66.5 kg ha-1 annually.Maximum N gain was recorded on application of P. There was a linear relationship between the amount of harvestable biomass N and residual biomass N, whereas quantity of N added to soil has a curvilinear relationship with the harvestable biomass N. The highest percentage of N derived from the atmosphere (%Ndfa) was recorded in the control treatment, but the highest amount of N2 fixed was found in the 100% NPK treatment. Balanced use of nutrient is the best option to harness the N 2 fixation potential of soybean. © Cambridge University Press 2012. Source

Tomar R.K.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Indian Journal of Natural Products and Resources | Year: 2010

Chickpea (Cicer arietinum Linn.) is most important pulse crop in Madhya Pradesh. Front line demonstration were conducted during the post rainy season at 48 farmers fields, to demonstrate production potential and economic benefit of improved technologies consisting suitable varieties (cvs 'JG -322', 'JG-11'), integrated nutrient management (20:60:20:30 NPKS kg/ha + Rhizobium + PSB @ 20 g/kg seed), integrated pest management (deep ploughing + seed treatment with Tricoderma viride @ 5 g/kg seed + Fermone trap @ 10/ha + Bird perchers @ 50/ha + quanalphos @ 1.2 l with 600 l of water) at Tikamgarh district of Bundelkhand Agro-climate zone during Rabi season 2004-05 to 2008-09. The improved technologies recorded mean yield of 19.65 q/ha which was 71.88 per cent higher than that obtained with farmers practices of 11.44 q/ha. Improved technologies gave higher mean net return of Rs. 24611/ha with a benefit cost ratio 2.99 as compared to local practice (Rs. 11820/ha, benefit cost ratio 2.58). Source

Reddy D.D.,Indian Institute of Science | Kushwaha S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya | Srivastava S.,Indian Institute of Science | Khamparia R.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Krishi Vishwa Vidyalaya
Communications in Soil Science and Plant Analysis | Year: 2014

The management of crop residues coupled with external nutrient inputs is important for improving and conserving soil fertility and productivity. We assessed the long-term effects of three wheat residue management options (RMO) (residue burning, incorporation, and surface retention) in combination with three supplementary nutrient inputs (SNI) [control, fertilizer, and farmyard manure (FYM)] on phosphorus (P) fractions and adsorption behavior of a Vertisol under soybean-wheat system. Wheat residue incorporation and retention improved the labile inorganic P [sodium bicarbonate (NaHCO3-Pi)] by 3.2 and 5.0 mg kg-1 and the labile organic P (NaHCO3-Po) by 2.4 and 4.2 mg kg-1, respectively, as compared to residue burning. The soils under residue incorporation and retention had 38 and 26% more moderately labile organic P [sodium hydroxide (NaOH-Po)], respectively, than the soil under residue burning. The SNI either as fertilizer or FYM further enhanced NaHCO3-Pi, NaHCO3-Po, and NaOH-Po. In contrast, less labile P fractions [hydrochloric acid (HCl)-P and residual-P] remained unaffected by RMO and SNI treatments. Residue retention or incorporation decreased P adsorption over the residue burning for all the three nutrient inputs. The P-adsorption data fitted well to the Langmuir equation (R2 ranged from 0.970 to 0.994). The P-adsorption maximum (b), bonding energy constant (k), differential P-buffering capacity (DPBC), and standard P requirement (SPR) were lower with residue incorporation or surface retention than with residue burning. The SPR followed the order residue burning > incorporation > retention for RMOs and control > fertilizer > FYM for SNI treatments. The NaHCO3-Pi, NaHCO3-P0, and NaOH-Po had negative correlation with P-adsorption parameters and showed positive correlation with soybean P uptake. Wheat residue incorporation or retention plus FYM could be an effective strategy for enhancing the P fertility of Vertisols under a soybean-wheat system. © 2014 Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source

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