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Manigaunha A.,NRI Institute of Pharmacy | Ganesh N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Kharya M.D.,Dr Hari Singh Gour University
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2010

Ipomoea pes-caprae (Convolvulacea) is a valuable medicinal plant, distributed in the tropics and subtropics regions and uses in folk and tribal medicines. Usually known as dopatilata, railroad vine and goat's-foot morning glory. The plant contains active component likes naphthalenone, (-)-mellein, eugenol, 4-vinyl-guaiacol. lipophilic glycosides, 2-methylpropanoic, (2S)-methylbutyric, n-hexanoic, n-decanoic, and n-dodecanoic acids. The juice from the succulent leaves has been used as a first aid to treat jellyfish stings and also used in ritual baths to alleviate evil spells. The extract of the leaves have the astringent, diuretic and laxative properties. Leaves are used in rheumatism, and as stomachic and tonic. It has wide range of pharmacological activities like antioxidant, analgesic, anti-inflammatory, antispasmodic, antinociceptive, antihistaminic, insulogenic and hypoglycemic activities. This review focuses the published scientific evidence on its pharmacological properties, phytochemical composition, uses, along with descriptions of the plant. A number of herbal preparations are widely used in traditional system of medicine for the management of different disorders but, many of them have not been investigated for their described effects. This plant have broad spectrum activities so, further studies on other models and extensive clinical trials are needed to confirm these findings. © arjournals.org, All rights reserved.

Paz-Ares L.,University of Seville | de Marinis F.,San Camillo Forlanini Hospital | Dediu M.,Institute of Oncology Bucharest | Thomas M.,University of Heidelberg | And 13 more authors.
The Lancet Oncology | Year: 2012

Background: Patients with advanced non-squamous non-small-cell lung cancer (NSCLC) benefit from pemetrexed maintenance therapy after induction therapy with a platinum-containing, non-pemetrexed doublet. The PARAMOUNT trial investigated whether continuation maintenance with pemetrexed improved progression-free survival after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin. Methods: In this double-blind, multicentre, phase 3, randomised placebo-controlled trial, patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC aged 18 years or older, with no previous systemic chemotherapy for lung cancer, with at least one measurable lesion, and an Eastern Cooperative Oncology Group (ECOG) performance status of 0 or 1 participated. Before randomisation, patients entered an induction phase which consisted of four cycles of induction pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2) plus cisplatin (75 mg/m 2) on day 1 of a 21-day cycle. Patients who did not progress after completion of four cycles of induction and who had an ECOG performance status of 0 or 1 were stratified according to disease stage (IIIB or IV), ECOG performance status (0 or 1), and induction response (complete or partial response, or stable disease), and randomly assigned (2:1 ratio) to receive maintenance therapy with either pemetrexed (500 mg/m 2 every 21 days) plus best supportive care or placebo plus best supportive care until disease progression. Randomisation was done with the Pocock and Simon minimisation method. Patients and investigators were masked to treatment assignment. The primary endpoint was progression-free survival in the intention-to-treat population. This study is registered with ClinicalTrials.gov, NCT00789373. Findings: Of the 1022 patients enrolled, 939 participated in the induction phase. Of these, 539 patients were randomly assigned to receive continuation maintenance with pemetrexed plus best supportive care (n=359) or with placebo plus best supportive care (n=180). Among the 359 patients randomised to continuation maintenance with pemetrexed, there was a significant reduction in the risk of disease progression over the placebo group (HR 0·62, 95% CI 0·49-0·79; p<0·0001). The median progression-free survival, measured from randomisation, was 4·1 months (95% CI 3·2-4·6) for pemetrexed and 2·8 months (2·6-3·1) for placebo. Possibly treatment-related laboratory grade 3-4 adverse events were more common in the pemetrexed group (33 [9%] of 359 patients) than in the placebo group (one [<1%] of 180 patients; p<0·0001), as were non-laboratory grade 3-5 adverse events (32 [9%] of 359 patients in the pemetrexed group; eight [4%] of 180 patients in the placebo group; p=0·080); one possibly treatment-related death was reported in each group. The most common adverse events of grade 3-4 in the pemetrexed group were anaemia (16 [4%] of 359 patients), neutropenia (13 [4%]), and fatigue (15 [4%]). In the placebo group, these adverse events were less common: anaemia (one [<1%] of 180 patients), neutropenia (none), and fatigue (one <1%]). The most frequent serious adverse events were anaemia (eight [2%] of 359 patients in the pemetrexed group vs none in the placebo group) and febrile neutropenia (five [1%] vs none). Discontinuations due to drug-related adverse events occurred in 19 (5%) patients in the pemetrexed group and six (3%) patients in the placebo group. Interpretation: Continuation maintenance with pemetrexed is an effective and well tolerated treatment option for patients with advanced non-squamous NSCLC with good performance status who have not progressed after induction therapy with pemetrexed plus cisplatin. Funding: Eli Lilly and Company. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.

Pillai T.G.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Pillai T.G.,Kerala Forest Research Institute | Uma Devi P.,Pathirissery Mana
Mutation Research - Genetic Toxicology and Environmental Mutagenesis | Year: 2013

The in vivo radioprotective effect of a beta-glucan (BG) isolated from the mushroom Ganoderma lucidum, against radiation (RT) induced damage was investigated taking mouse survival, hematology, liver GSH (Reduced glutathione), liver Malondialdehyde (MDA) and bone marrow chromosomal aberrations as end points. Young adult swiss albino mice were whole body exposed to gamma radiation. For mouse survival study, BG was administered orally (250. μg/kg body wt or 500. μg/kg body wt) 15. min before or 5. min after 8. Gy exposure. For other parameters BG was given orally 5. min after 4. Gy exposure. The radioprotective effect of BG was compared with that of clinically used radioprotective drug amifostine (WR-2721), at 300. mg/kg body wt administered intraperitoneally, 30. min before irradiation. BG (500. μg/kg body wt) produced (66%) mouse survival at 30 days given post irradiation, and 83% survived at 30 days with 300. mg/kg body wt of amifostine administered before RT while RT alone produced 100% mortality. BG is not toxic at the radioprotective dose. Significant reduction in number of aberrant cells and different types of aberration was observed in both BG and amifostine administered groups compared to radiation alone treated group. BG seems to have potential for use in protection against unplanned radiation exposures. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Pathak P.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Pathak P.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Kurchania R.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2014

Low temperature combustion synthesis was employed for the preparation of CaYAl3O7(Mn2+) phosphor. X-Ray diffraction (XRD) patterns were recorded to confirm the phase formation. Estimated particle size was found to be ~19.9nm by using the Debye Scherrer[U+05F3]s formula. FTIR study confirms the formation of CaYAl3O7 compound, escape of nitrates and other organic products. Thermoluminescence (TL) glow curves of the prepared phosphor were recorded after exposing the sample with Ultra-violet (UV), 6-Mega-voltage (MV), 16-MV and Co-60(Cobalt-60, 1.25-MeV average gamma energy) radiation. Trapping parameters namely activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b) and frequency factor(s) of main peak, centered around 186°C in the sample irradiated with UV source for 20min, were determined using glow curve shape (Chen[U+05F3]s) method. It has been observed that the TL peak intensity increases with increasing the exposure from UV source. Also with increases the energy of incident radiation a decrease in TL peak intensity were observed. This could be due to higher penetration power and less absorbance of incident beam in the phosphor material. Analysis suggests that possibility of utilizing this phosphor in futuristic low and high energy dosimetric applications as well as in solid state lighting devices. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.

Shrivastava S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Ganesh N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center
International Journal of Phytomedicine | Year: 2010

The present study was aimed to investigate the effects of aqueous extract of four different varieties of Allium cepa (Onion) & Allium sativum (Garlic) on B16F10 Melanoma cell population by ex-vivo. For cytotoxicity assay, cellular micronucleus, apoptotic assay and cell viability assay were followed. Our results showed significant activity of garlic and onion as cytoprotective agents of normal cells and cytotoxicity agents for tumor cells. A significant decrease in Melanoma B16F10 cell population by crude extract was observed. Therefore, Allium cepa & Allium sativum might be a candidate for naturally healing the tumor. © arjournals.org, All rights reserved.

Senthilkumar C.S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Ganesh N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center
Experimental Oncology | Year: 2012

Aim: Multiple myeloma (MM) is a malignant neoplasm of plasma cells (PC) derived from the bone marrow (BM) origin. The present case report was aimed to monitor the efficiency of lenalidomide-based combined therapy (LBCT) induced alterations in serum proteins of 42-year-old female MM patient. Besides, in the context of case report we also present an overview of the literature describing LBCT. Study design: Serum protein electrophoresis (SPEP) was performed in three visits (V1-V3) to monitor the disease status of the patient and her treatment response to LBCT. Level of monoclonal protein (M-protein) was measured through cellulose acetate zone electrophoresis and quantified by densitometer in follow-up investigations after therapy intervals. Results: A significant reduction of M-protein in γ-globulin region was observed (P < 0.007) after receiving LBCT. However, the condition depicted hyper γ- globulinemia. β-globulin (P < 0.002) and α2-globulin (P < 0.047) was suppressed from the initial visit and subsequent follow-up also indicated the status of hypoglobulinaemia. Although, serum albumin level was found to be increased after therapy (P < 0.016), hypoalbuminaemia was also noticed before and after LBCT. Conclusion: On the basis of this case report and pertinent literature, we conclude that LBCT is more efficient in the treatment of MM and has significant role in serum protein alterations especially in the reduction of M-protein in the MM patients. Copyright © Experimental Oncology, 2012.

Pandey S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Pandey S.,Priyamvada Birla Cancer Research Institute
Asian Pacific Journal of Tropical Disease | Year: 2015

To investigate the antimicrobial and phytochemical properties of hydromethanolic extracts of Bauhinia variegata Linn. (. B. variegata) (leaf, stem bark and flower) to justify the traditional claim endowed upon this herbal drug as a rasayana in Ayurveda. This study thus can be further utilized to formulate the natural antioxidant which can be used as a dietary supplement to fight against several diseases such as cancer, ageing, arthrosclerosis, etc. Methods: The study showed that the number of different phytoconstituents present in the plant which makes it remarkable for its use by traditional practitioners. On the another set of experiment, the hydromethanolic extract of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower) were evaluated against Gram-positive and Gram-negative by using disk diffusion assay. Results: Phytochemical screening of all extracts showed the presence of alkaloids, steroids, phenolic compounds, tannins, saponin, carbohydrates, proteins, amino acids and organic acids. The antibacterial activity of all the extracts (leaf, stem bark and flower) of B. variegata was determined by agar well diffusion method at four different concentrations i.e., 1 000 mg/mL, 750 mg/mL, 500 mg/mL and 250 mg/mL using Gram-positive Bacillus subtilius, Staphylococcus aureus and Streptococcus epidermidis and Gram-negative Escherichia coli, Shegilla flexineria, Pseudomonas auriginosa bacteria. Conclusions: These studies show that hydromethanolic extracts of B. variegata (leaf, stem bark and flower) inhibited the growth of microorganism's in dose dependently. B. variegata leaf, stem bark and flower extracts have several phytochemical constituents who possess the antimicrobial activity. A tiny amount of data is presented, as the preliminary antimicrobial properties of the B. variegata here accessed, under the urgent necessity of new antibiotics in the market and in face of the increased resistance of infectious microorganisms to antimicrobials. © 2015 Asian Pacific Tropical Medicine Press.

Pathak P.K.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology | Pathak P.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Kurchania R.,Maulana Azad National Institute of Technology
Radiation Physics and Chemistry | Year: 2015

Powder samples of SrAl2O4 (Eu) were synthesized by the combustion method using urea as a fuel. The combustion products were calcined at 700°C for 1h. X-ray diffraction (XRD) patterns of the prepared sample exhibit sharp diffraction peaks and absence of any amorphous phase. The average crystalline size was found to be ~33.04nm, calculated by using Debye Scherer's formula. The scanning electron microscope (SEM) images reveal that the crystallites have no uniform shape and the presence of several micro- and nano-particles within the grain. This may be due to the non-uniform distribution of temperature and mass flow in the combustion flame which results in the non-uniform shape of crystallites. The thermogravimetric analysis (TGA) indicates that the prepared sample is thermally stable up to900°C. Thermoluminescence (TL) behavior of prepared samples was studied after irradiation with Co-60gamma rays, 6 mega voltage (MV) and 16MV photon beams at various doses. Glow curve of the prepared SrAl2O4 (Eu:1%) sample was similar in shape irrespective of incident energy and radiation type. The dominant peak in each glow curveappeared around at 312°C. No shifts in peak positions have been observed. All the glow curves of sample doped with Eu(3%) have relatively higher intensity as compared to the sample doped with Eu(1%). Energy dependence has been observed in the present phosphor. This could be because of increase in the probability of Compton's interaction at this energy range due to transmission of primary as well as scattered radiation and decrease in mass attenuation coefficient with the increase in energy. The trapping parameters namely activation energy (E), order of kinetics (b) and frequency factor (s) have been determined using the glow curve shape (Chen's) method. These phosphors could be utilized for display applications, dating, temperature sensor, low as well as high energy radiation detection and dosimetry especially where tissue equivalency is not much desirable like gamma irradiator, environmental and retrospective dose assessment. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Pathak P.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Vashisht S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center
Journal of Medical Physics | Year: 2013

The aim of present study was to evaluate the intensity-modulated radiation therapy (IMRT) plans using different homogeneity and conformity indices in gynecological cancers, as well as to compare and find out the most reliable and accurate measure of the dose homogeneity among the available indices. In this study, a cohort of 12 patients were registered for evaluation, those receiving dynamic IMRT treatment on Clinac-2300C/D linear accelerator with 15-Mega Voltage (MV) photon beam. Dynamic IMRT plans were created on Eclipse treatment planning system with Helios dose volume optimization software. Homogeneity indices (HI) such as H index, modified H index, HI index, modified HI index, and S-index (sigma-index) proposed by M Yoon et al. (2007) were calculated and compared. The values of S-index vary from 1.63 to 2.99. The results indicate that the H and HI indices and their modified versions may not provide the correct dose homogeneity information, but the S-index provides accurate information about the dose homogeneity in the Planning Target Volume (PTV). Each plan was compared with 6-MV photon energy on the basis of S-index and conformity index (CI). Organs at risk (OAR) doses with 6-MV and 15-MV beams were also reported.

Agrawal R.C.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center | Beohar T.,Jawaharlal Nehru Cancer Hospital and Research Center
Asian Pacific Journal of Cancer Prevention | Year: 2010

The aim of the study was to examine whether Momordica fruit extract (MFE) and Momordica leaves extract (MLE) might exert any chemopreventive effect in a two stage protocol in skin carcinogenesis with Swiss albino mice. The tumour incidence, tumour yield, tumour burden and cumulative no. of papillomas were found to be higher in the controls (without either extract) as compared to the MFE or MLE treated experimental groups. In a melanoma model, the mice which received fruit and leaf extracts of Momordica at the doses of 500 and 1000 mg/kg body weight for 30 days showed increase in life span of animals and tumour volume was significantly reduced as compared to control values. In cytogenetic studies, a single application of Momordica extracts at doses of 500, 1000 and 1500 mg/kg body weight, 24 hours prior the i.p. administration of cyclophosphamide, significantly prevented micronucleus formation and chromosomal aberrations in a dose dependent manner in bone marrow cells of mice. The present study demonstrate chemopreventive potential of Momordica fruit and leaf extracts on DMBA induced skin tumorigenesis, melanoma tumour and cytogenicity.

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