Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University

www.jnkvv.nic.in
Jabalpur, India

Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University , Hindi: जवाहर लाल नेहरु कृषि विशवविधालय, is a public university in Jabalpur, Madhya Pradesh, India specializing in the field of agriculture. It is recognized and accredited by University Grants Commission. Wikipedia.


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Sondhia S.,ICAR Directorate of Weed Research | Khare R.R.,ICAR Directorate of Weed Research | Khare R.R.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University
Asian Journal of Chemistry | Year: 2017

Leaching can significantly contribute to pesticide contamination of surface and ground water. Therefore, leaching of a rice herbicide, cyhalofop-butyl, i.e., (butyl(R)-2-[4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy)phenoxy])propanoate was examined in sandy loam soil in field lysimeters at two levels of applications. A quantitative evaluation of soil samples taken at 0-225 cm depths indicated that rainfall events in initial days caused leaching of cyhalofop-butyl and an amount of 0.48 and 0.104 μg L-1 cyhalofop-butyl were detected in the leachates in corresponding to two application levels. After receiving 253.2 mm of rainfall average concentration of cyhalofop-butyl at 0-100 cm soil depths at two levels of application was found 78.7 to 19.16 % which was decreased to 5.58, 5.37 % after receiving 91.9 and 15.2 mm rainfall at 5 and 10th day, respectively. Rapid degradation of cyhalofop-butyl occurred in the soil at various depths though the chemical hydrolysis process and three degradation products of cyhalofop-butyl were detected from soil and leachates. The study showed that measured concentration of cyhalofop-butyl did not exceed EPA guidelines values of no observed effect level (NOEL) on aquatic system in the water. © 2017, Chemical Publishing Co. All rights reserved.


Kumar V.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Rawat A.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Rao D.L.N.,ICARIndian Institute of Soil Science
Agriculture, Ecosystems and Environment | Year: 2017

Ensuring adequate populations of effective rhizobia in soil is essential to guarantee optimum nodulation and nitrogen fixation in legumes. The population of soybean-rhizobia and the proportion of slow and fast growers were enumerated in Vertisols of central India in different crop rotations for three years during 2013-15. Soils were from soybean-based (soybean-wheat and soybean-chickpea) and cereal-based rotations (maize-wheat, rice-wheat and maize-chickpea) rotations. Soybean-based rotations stimulated the rhizobial population by 22-fold compared to cereal rotations. Lowest populations were in the summer but increased in soybean rotations by 13.3-fold after the rainy season to 2743 cells g−1 soil at maximum vegetative growth. In the cereal rotations, the increase was by 1.7-fold to 61 cells g−1 soil. Long-term integrated nutrient management, by annual application of farmyard manure in soybean along with chemical fertilizers, improved the rhizobial numbers by 1.5-fold over chemical fertilization alone and by 2.9-fold over unfertilized treatments. Increased crop growth by chemical fertilizers also stimulated rhizobial populations by 1.9-fold over unfertilized soybean. The proportion of slow-growing soybean rhizobia was lower in soybean-based rotations (38%) compared to cereal-based rotations (62%), showing that continued soybean growth led to a greater proliferation of fast-growing rhizobia. Application of farmyard manure did not change the proportion of slow growers. The proportion of slow growers was ∼15% more in winter compared with the summer populations. The slow growers were symbiotically superior, producing greater dry matter and nodule mass (+12%), with more biologically fixed nitrogen (+18%) than the fast growers. Results highlight the importance of crop rotation with cereals, application of organic amendments along with chemical fertilizers and selection of slow-growing rhizobia as inoculants. © 2017 Elsevier B.V.


Sharma H.L.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University
Plant Archives | Year: 2012

E×perimental design adopted for the study was the randomized complete block design (RCBD) with three replication in Horticulture Comple×, Maharajpur, Department of Horticulture, JNKVV, Jabalpur, (M.P.), India during 2008-2009. Correlation coefficients were calculated for seed yield per plant and its components. The components of seed yield considered are plant height at 30 days, 60 days & 90 days after sowing, no. of fruits/ plant, length of the fruit. Seed yield per plant showed significant negative correlation with plant height 30 days and plant height 60 days showed positive and significant association with plant height 90 days.


Sondhia S.,Directorate of Weed Science Research | Khare R.R.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University
Environmental Monitoring and Assessment | Year: 2014

The ability of herbicides to be adsorbed by the soil and sediment and their tendency to be desorbed are some of the most important factors affecting soil and water contamination. Therefore, a sorption study was conducted to evaluate the adsorption of cyhalofop-butyl, butyl (2R)-2-[4-(4-cyano-2-fluorophenoxy) phenoxy] propanoate, in the sandy clay loam and clayey soils using a batch equilibrium method. The adsorption of cyhalofop-butyl was found positively related with the clay and organic carbon content. Freundlich constants (Kf) of cyhalofop-butyl in the clayey and sandy clay loam were found to be 13.39 and 2.21, respectively. Sorption coefficients (Koc) and distribution coefficients (Kd) were found to be 265.38 and 2,092.79, and 1.38 and 11.48, for sandy clay loam and clayey soils, respectively. The adsorption isotherm suggested a relatively higher affinity of cyhalofop-butyl to the adsorption sites at low equilibrium concentrations. The low value of the soil organic carbon partition coefficient (Koc) of cyhalofop-butyl in the sandy loam soil suggested its weaker adsorption in soil and thus increased its risk of mobility into water sources; hence, it should be used judiciously to prevent groundwater contamination © 2014 Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Khare R.R.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Sondhia S.,Directorate of Weed Science Research
Journal of Environmental Science and Health - Part B Pesticides, Food Contaminants, and Agricultural Wastes | Year: 2014

This study was conducted to evaluate cyhalofop-p-butyl mobility in a sandy loam soil and subsequent distribution of residues at various depths under field conditions. Soil samples were taken from 0 to 150 cm depths at 3-90 d after rains in lysemeter of 1 and 2 m depths. Cyhalofop-p-butyl application at two rates and subsequent precipitation had a significant impact on soil, physico-chemical properties and herbicide mobility. Precipitation caused substantial mobility of cyhalofop-p-butyl in the soil and 1.1-7.6 μg L-1 of cyhalofop-p-butyl was found in leachates. Cyhalofop-p-butyl residues in the leachates were probably due to preferential flow through the soil. Cyhalofop-p-butyl residues were detected in significant amounts from the soil up to 10 d, later, residues were found below the detection limit but its three transformation products viz., cyhalofop acid, diacid, and phenol were detected. © 2014 Copyright © Taylor & Francis Group, LLC.


Sahoo N.R.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Panda M.K.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Bal L.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Pal U.S.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Sahoo D.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Effect of packaging techniques and storage environment was assessed for maintaining quality and shelf life of guava. Changes in headspace gases, physiological loss in weight (PLW), ascorbic acid, texture, colour and subjective quality were evaluated. The in-pack guava created a suitable headspace with low O2 and high CO2 concentrations, which resulted in a better retention of freshness of the guava. Shrink packaging with bi-axially oriented polypropylene (BOPP) could not yield better result under ambient storage because of high water vapour transmission rate (WVTR) of the film and consequently loss of turgidity of fruits. Modified atmospheric packaging (MAP) in polypropylene (PP) with pin holes was found to be the best followed by vacuum pack with PP in cold condition and could be used to store for 28 and 24 days with maintenance of texture, colour, ascorbic acid and marketability. It is also inferred that under ambient conditions guava could be stored for 4 days using low density polyethylene (LDPE) with pin holes and PP with pin holes as MAP storage. The research findings of the study would give an innovative facet for fresh guava preservation and enhancing the commercial potential along with open new avenues for fresh fruit and vegetable industry. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Sahoo N.R.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Bal L.M.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Pal U.S.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology | Sahoo D.,Orissa University of Agriculture and Technology
Journal of Food Measurement and Characterization | Year: 2014

The effect of packaging materials [low density polyethylene (LDPE), polypropylene (PP)] and storage environment [modified atmospheric packaging (MAP)] on shelf life enhancement of bell pepper in terms of quality attributes such as physiological weight loss, ascorbic acid, texture, surface colour and subjective quality analysis have been studied at ambient and refrigerated condition. Different packaging techniques used for the experiment were MAP with LDPE, MAP with PP, MAP in perforated LDPE films, MAP in perforated PP films, shrink packaging with bi-axially oriented PP (BOPP) film and vacuum packaging with PP film. The in-pack bell pepper created a suitable headspace environment with low O2 and high CO2 concentrations, which resulted in a better retention of freshness of the vegetables and its marketability. Shrink packaging with BOPP film could not yield better result under ambient storage because of high water vapor transmission rate of the film and consequently loss of turgidity of the vegetables. Among different packaging techniques and storage conditions, MAP with PP film in refrigerated condition was found to be the best followed by vacuum pack with PP film in refrigerated condition and could be used to store for 20 days for bell pepper with maintenance of texture, colour, ascorbic acid and marketability. It is also inferred that under ambient conditions, bell pepper could be stored for 4 days using ventilated LDPE and PP as MAP storage. Further studies are needed to evaluate the sensory aspects, as well as to microbiological evaluation to characterize the fresh bell pepper during storage. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Shukla P.,Government Science College | Khanna A.,St Aloysius College | Jain S.K.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University
Indian Journal of Occupational and Environmental Medicine | Year: 2011

The present investigation was undertaken to study the role of working conditions in occupational hazards among bidi rollers occupationally exposed to tobacco dust with reference to DNA damage in peripheral blood lymphocytes. Initially, biomonitoring was conducted by estimating urinary thioether to detect the extent of xenobiotic exposure, and genotoxicity was evaluated by assessing DNA damage and micronucleus frequency in buccal epithelial cells in female bidi rollers occupationally exposed to bidi tobacco dust. Student′s t-test was used to test the significance between the means. Results showed a significant increase in urinary thioether level in during-shift urine samples as compared to pre-shift samples, which indicated exposure of bidi rollers to xenobiotic compounds. A significant increase in DNA damage was observed in the rollers working in confined environment as compared to those who worked in open and mixed kind of working conditions. Keeping in view the adverse effects of tobacco inhalation on the genotoxic effects in bidi rollers as an occupational hazard and in order to minimize the hazardous effects, it is recommended that masks should be worn by the bidi rollers during work to minimize inhalation of tobacco dust. Gloves should be worn particularly if there are bruises etc. in the palm. To minimize the absorption through eyes, covered glasses should be worn. The entire process of bidi rolling may be done preferably under well ventilated conditions. Due care to be taken to sit in the direction facing the direction of wind to avoid inhalation of blown away tobacco dust.


Gontia-Mishra I.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Sasidharan S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Tiwari S.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2014

Ethylene is an essential plant hormone also known as a stress hormone because its synthesis is accelerated by induction of a variety of biotic and abiotic stress. The plant growth promoting bacteria containing the enzyme 1-aminocyclopropane-1-carboxylate (ACC) deaminase enhances plant growth by decreasing plant ethylene levels under stress conditions. The expression of ACC deaminase (acdS) gene in transgenic plants is an alternative approach to overcome the ethylene-induced stress. Several transgenic plants have been engineered to express both bacterial/plant acdS genes which then lowers the stress-induced ethylene levels, thus efficiently combating the deleterious effects of environmental stresses. This review summarizes the current knowledge of various transgenic plants overexpressing microbial and plant acdS genes and their potential under diverse biotic and abiotic stresses. Transcription regulation mechanism of acdS gene from different bacteria, with special emphasis to nitrogen fixing bacteria is also discussed in this review. © 2014 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht.


Tripathi N.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University | Khare D.,Jawaharlal Nehru Agricultural University
Biotechnology Letters | Year: 2016

Soybean is an economically important leguminous crop. Genetic improvements of soybeans have focused on enhancement of seed and oil yield, development of varieties suited to different cropping systems, and breeding resistant/tolerant varieties for various biotic and abiotic stresses. Plant breeders have used conventional breeding techniques for the improvement of these traits in soybean. The conventional breeding process can be greatly accelerated through the application of molecular and genomic approaches. Molecular markers have proved to be a new tool in soybean breeding by enhancing selection efficiency in a rapid and time-bound manner. An overview of molecular approaches for the genetic improvement of soybean seed quality parameters, considering recent applications of marker-assisted selection and ‘omics’ research, is provided in this article. © 2016 Springer Science+Business Media Dordrecht

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