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Singh R.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Singh Y.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Xalaxo S.,Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | Verulkar S.,Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | And 45 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2016

Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1, qDTY2.1, qDTY2.2, qDTY3.1, qDTY3.2, qDTY9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into seven popular locally adapted rice varieties, namely, ADT 45, CR 1009, Gayatri, MTU 1010, PR 114, Pusa 44 and Sarjoo 52. Genotypic background selection is being done after BC2F2 stage using an in-house designed 50K SNP chip on a set of twenty lines for each combination, identified with phenotypic similarity in the field to the recipient parent. Near-isogenic lines with more than 90% similarity to the recipient parent are now in advanced generation field trials. These climate smart varieties are expected to improve rice productivity in the adverse ecologies and contribute to the farmer's livelihood. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Singh R.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Singh Y.,National Research Center on Plant Biotechnology | Xalaxo S.,Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | Verulkar S.,Indira Gandhi Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | And 44 more authors.
Plant Science | Year: 2015

Rice is a staple cereal of India cultivated in about 43.5Mha area but with relatively low average productivity. Abiotic factors like drought, flood and salinity affect rice production adversely in more than 50% of this area. Breeding rice varieties with inbuilt tolerance to these stresses offers an economically viable and sustainable option to improve rice productivity. Availability of high quality reference genome sequence of rice, knowledge of exact position of genes/QTLs governing tolerance to abiotic stresses and availability of DNA markers linked to these traits has opened up opportunities for breeders to transfer the favorable alleles into widely grown rice varieties through marker-assisted backcross breeding (MABB). A large multi-institutional project, "From QTL to variety: marker-assisted breeding of abiotic stress tolerant rice varieties with major QTLs for drought, submergence and salt tolerance" was initiated in 2010 with funding support from Department of Biotechnology, Government of India, in collaboration with International Rice Research Institute, Philippines. The main focus of this project is to improve rice productivity in the fragile ecosystems of eastern, northeastern and southern part of the country, which bear the brunt of one or the other abiotic stresses frequently. Seven consistent QTLs for grain yield under drought, namely, qDTY1.1 , qDTY2.1 , qDTY2.2 , qDTY3.1 , qDTY3.2 , qDTY 9.1 and qDTY12.1 are being transferred into submergence tolerant versions of three high yielding mega rice varieties, Swarna-Sub1, Samba Mahsuri-Sub1 and IR 64-Sub1. To address the problem of complete submergence due to flash floods in the major river basins, the Sub1 gene is being transferred into ten highly popular locally adapted rice varieties namely, ADT 39, ADT 46, Bahadur, HUR 105, MTU 1075, Pooja, Pratikshya, Rajendra Mahsuri, Ranjit, and Sarjoo 52. Further, to address the problem of soil salinity, Saltol, a major QTL for salt tolerance is being transferred into seven popular locally adapted rice varieties, namely, ADT 45, CR 1009, Gayatri, MTU 1010, PR 114, Pusa 44 and Sarjoo 52. Genotypic background selection is being done after BC2F2 stage using an in-house designed 50K SNP chip on a set of twenty lines for each combination, identified with phenotypic similarity in the field to the recipient parent. Near-isogenic lines with more than 90% similarity to the recipient parent are now in advanced generation field trials. These climate smart varieties are expected to improve rice productivity in the adverse ecologies and contribute to the farmer's livelihood. © 2015 Elsevier Ireland Ltd. Source


Tiwari B.K.,Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | Sharma A.,Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | Sahare K.V.,Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya | Tripathi P.N.,S.M.S. Soil Science | Singh R.R.,Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya
Plant Archives | Year: 2014

The present study was carried out at Krishi Vigyan Kendra, Umaria to know the yield gap between improved package and practices (IP) under Front Line Demonstration (FLD) and farmer's practice (FP) of wheat crop under limited irrigation conditions. The study found, the yield of wheat in IP under limited irrigated conditions ranges from 29.70 to 32.45 q/ha whereas in FP it ranges between 19.20 to 24.50 q/ha. The per cent increase in yield with IP over FP was recorded in the range of 32.40 to 35.90. The extension gap and technological index were ranging between 7.95-10.5 q/ha and 18.8-25.75 per cent, respectively. The trend of technology gap reflected the farmer's cooperation in carrying out demonstrations with encouraging results in subsequent years. The cost benefit ratio was 2.15 to 2.54 under demonstration, while it was 1.69 to 1.96 under FP plots. By conducting front line demonstration of proven technologies, yield potential of wheat crop could be enhanced to a great extent with increase in the income level of the farming community. Source


Pandey P.,Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology | Tiwari D.,Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology | Pandey V.R.,Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology | Yadav S.,Jawahar Lal Nehru Krishi Vishwavidyalaya
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2014

To recognize proper parents for hybrid pigeonpea inheritance pattern of some polygenic traits was studied. The results showed that estimates of SCA variance were higher than their corresponding GCA variance for all the traits except plant height. The values of average degree of dominance were more than unity (>1) and predictability ratio was less than unity (<1) for all the traits except plant height, signifying non-additive gene action which resulted from dominance, over dominance, epistatic and various other interaction effects. Predominance of non-additive effects specifies that population is heterozygous, as such this type of genetic variance is non-fixable. Hence, heterosis breeding is effective for increasing yield potential of pigeonpea. On the basis of general combining ability, the male lines ICP 2309, NDA 2, NDA 3, NDA 96-6, NDA 98-6 and, ICP 2155 and CMS line NDACMS 1-6A were found most promising parents for yield and its major attributes. The crosses, NDACMS 1-4A x NDA GC 31, NDACMS 1-6A x NDA 5-14, NDACMS 1-6A x NDA 8-6, NDACMS 1-4A x IPA 208, NDACMS 1-3A x NDA 98-6, NDACMS 1-4A x Bahar, NDACMS 1-6A x NDA 96-1, NDACMS 1-4A x Amar had high estimates for parents and good specific combining ability effects, hence, it may be considered for hybrid breeding programme. Source


Pandey P.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Pandey P.,Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology | Pandey V.R.,Indian Institute of Pulses Research | Pandey V.R.,Narendra Dev University of Agriculture and Technology | And 5 more authors.
Australian Journal of Crop Science | Year: 2015

Pigeonpea (Cajanus cajan (L.) Millspaugh) is one of the most important food legume crops in the semi-arid regions of the world. India is the largest pigeonpea growing country however; its productivity per unit area by world standard is sparingly low and stagnant owing to several biotic and abiotic stresses. In order to increase its productivity, high yielding and disease resistant varieties/hybrids should be developed. Hence, an attempt was made to assess relationship between heterosis and genetic diversity as well as forming heterotic groups for pigeonpea breeding. Three CMS lines were crossed with 20 elite genotypes/restorers in a line x tester mating system and the resultant 60 F1 hybrids along with their parents were evaluated for various morphological traits to predict the genetic relationship among parents and heterosis in their crosses. The parental genotypes under study fell into five distinct non-overlapping clusters. Maximum intra-cluster distance was in cluster III (263.80) followed by cluster IV (253.62) and cluster I (244.81). The inter-cluster distances varied from 299.93 (between cluster I and II) to 727.79 (between cluster II and IV). Generally, the crosses derived from high diversity group showed high positive significant heterosis for seed yield. However, some crosses give very high negative heterosis for seed yield although their parents belong to a high diversity group. The reason for this possibly will be linkage of alleles for complex genetic traits as biomass and yield. Consequently, the precision of genetic distance can be obtained by estimating genetic distance through molecular techniques. Among the top fifteen heterotic hybrids for seed yield, ten crosses were resulted from crossing between parents of low diversity while, five from the high diversity group. Heterotic grouping evinced that usually, yield, heterosis and specific combining ability are higher in inter-group crosses than in intra-group crosses. It could be concluded that genetic diversity can be utilized as a reliable parameter for predicting heterosis in hybrids. Source

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