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San Francisco, CA, United States

Jarvis Branson Cocker is an English musician, singer-songwriter, radio presenter and editor. He is known as frontman for the band Pulp. Through his work with the band, Cocker became a figurehead of the Britpop movement of the mid-1990s. Following Pulp's hiatus, Cocker has led a successful solo career, and presents a BBC Radio 6 Music show called Jarvis Cocker's Sunday Service. Wikipedia.

BACKGROUND: Invasive Cronobacter infection is rare, devastating, and epidemiologically/microbiologically linked to powdered infant formulas (PIFs). In 2002-2004, the US Food and Drug Administration advised health care professionals to minimize PIF and powdered human milk fortifier (HMF)'s preparation, feeding, and storage times and avoid feeding them to hospitalized premature or immunocompromised neonates. Labels for PIF used at home imply PIF is safe for healthy, term infants if label instructions are followed. METHODS: 1) Medical, public health, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention, US Food and Drug Administration, and World Health Organization records, publications, and personal communications were used to compare 68 (1958-2003) and 30 (2004-2010) cases of invasive Cronobacter disease in children without underlying disorders. 2) The costs of PIFs and ready-to-feed formulas (RTFs) were compared. RESULTS: Ninety-nine percent (95/96) of all infected infants were <2 months old. In 2004-2010, 59% (17/29) were term, versus 24% (15/63) in 1958-2003; 52% (15/29) became symptomatic at home, versus 21% (13/61). Of all infected infants, 26% (22/83) had received breast milk (BM), 23% (19/82) RTF, and 90% (76/84) PIF or HMF. Eight percent received BM and not PIF/HMF; 5%, RTF without PIF/HMF. For at least 10 PIF-fed infants, label instructions were reportedly followed. Twentyfour ounces of milk-based RTF cost $0.84 more than milk-based PIF; 24 ounces of soy-based RTF cost $0.24 less than soy-based PIF. CONCLUSIONS: Cronobacter can infect healthy, term (not just hospitalized preterm) young infants. Invasive Cronobacter infection is extremely unusual in infants not fed PIF/HMF. RTFs are commercially sterile, require minimal preparation, and are competitively priced. The exclusive use of BM and/or RTF for infants <2 months old should be encouraged. Copyright © 2012 by the American Academy of Pediatrics.

Salac D.,Jarvis
Computer Physics Communications | Year: 2016

The conservation of mass is a common issue with multiphase fluid simulations. In this work a novel projection method is presented which conserves mass both locally and globally. The fluid pressure is augmented with a time-varying component which accounts for any global mass change. The resulting system of equations is solved using an efficient Schur-complement method. Using the proposed method four numerical examples are performed: the evolution of a static bubble, the rise of a bubble, the breakup of a thin fluid thread, and the extension of a droplet in shear flow. The method is capable of conserving the mass even in situations with morphological changes such as droplet breakup. © 2016 Elsevier B.V.

Jarvis W.R.,Jarvis | Jarvis A.A.,Nova Southeastern University | Chinn R.Y.,Sharp Memorial Hospital
American Journal of Infection Control | Year: 2012

Background: Methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) remains one of the most prevalent multidrug-resistant organisms causing health care-associated infections. Limited data are available about how the prevalence of MRSA has changed over the past several years and what MRSA prevention practices have been implemented since the 2006 Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, MRSA survey. Methods: We conducted a national prevalence survey of MRSA colonization or infection in inpatients at US health care facilities. The survey was developed, received institutional review board approval, and then was distributed to all US Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc, members. Members were asked to complete the survey on 1 day during the period August 1 to December 30, 2010, reporting the number of inpatients with MRSA infection or colonization and facility- and patient-specific information. Results: Personnel at 590 facilities indicated a state and responded to the survey. All states were represented, except for Alaska and Washington, DC (mean, 12 facilities per state; range, 1-38). Respondents reported 4,476 MRSA-colonized/infected patients in 67,412 inpatients; the overall MRSA prevalence rate was 66.4 per 1,000 inpatients (25.3 infections and 41.1 colonizations per 1,000 inpatients). Active surveillance testing was conducted by 75.7% of the respondents; 39.6% used nonselective media, 37.2% used selective media, and 23.3% used polymerase chain reaction. Detailed data were provided on 3,176 MRSA-colonized/infected patients. Of those in whom colonization/infection status was reported (1,908/3,086 [61.8%] were MRSA colonized and 1,778/3,086 [38.2%] were MRSA infected), most MRSA-colonized or infected patients (78.3%) were detected within 48 hours of admission; the most common site of infection was skin and soft tissue (42.9%); and, using the Centers for Disease Control and Prevention's definitions, approximately 50% would be classified as health care-associated infections. Conclusion: Our survey documents that the MRSA prevalence in 2010 is higher than that reported in our 2006 survey. However, the majority of facilities currently are performing active surveillance testing, and, compared with 2006, the rate of MRSA infection has decreased while the rate of MRSA colonization has increased. In addition, compared with 2006, the proportion of MRSA strains recovered from MRSA-colonized/infected patients that are health care-associated strains has deceased, and community-associated strains have increased. © 2012 by the Association for Professionals in Infection Control and Epidemiology, Inc. Published by Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.

Olchanski N.,Boston Healthcare Associates | Mathews C.,Boston Healthcare Associates | Fusfeld L.,Boston Healthcare Associates | Jarvis W.,Jarvis
Infection Control and Hospital Epidemiology | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE. To compare the impacts of different methicillin-resistant Staphylococcus aureus (MRSA) screening test options (eg, polymerase chain reaction [PCR], rapid culture) and program characteristics on the clinical outcomes and budget of a typical US hospital. METHODS. We developed an Excel-based decision-analytic model, using published literature to calculate and compare hospital costs and MRSA infection rates for PCR- or culture-based MRSA screening and then used multivariate sensitivity analysis to evaluate key variables. Same-day PCR testing for a representative 370-bed teaching hospital in the United States was assessed in different populations (high-risk patients, intensive care unit [ICU] patients, or all patients) and compared with other test options. RESULTS. Different screening program populations (all patients, high-risk patients, ICU patients, or patients with previous MRSA colonization or infection only) represented a potential savings of $12,158-$76, 624 per month over no program ($188,618). Analysis of multiple test options in high-risk population screening indicated that same-day PCR testing of high-risk patients resulted in fewer infections over 1,720 patient-days (2.9, compared with 3.5 for culture on selective media and 3.8 for culture on nonselective media) and the lowest total cost ($112,012). The costs of other testing approaches ranged from $113,742 to $123,065. Sensitivity analysis revealed that variations in transmission rate, conversion to infection, prevalence increases, and hospital size are important to determine program impact. Among test characteristics, turnaround time is highly influential. CONCLUSION. All screening options showed reductions in infection rates and cost impact improvement over no screening program. Among the options, same-day PCR testing for high-risk patients slightly edges out the others in terms of fewest infections and greatest potential cost savings. © 2011 by The Society for Healthcare Epidemiology of America. All rights reserved.

Archibald L.K.,University of Florida | Jarvis W.R.,Jarvis
American Journal of Epidemiology | Year: 2011

Since 1946, Centers for Disease Control and Prevention (CDC) personnel have investigated outbreaks of infections and adverse events associated with delivery of health care. CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers have led onsite investigations of these outbreaks by systematically applying epidemiology, statistics, and laboratory science. During 1946-2005, CDC Epidemic Intelligence Service officers conducted 531 outbreak investigations in facilities across the United States and abroad. Initially, the majority of outbreaks involved gastrointestinal tract infections; however, in later years, bloodstream, respiratory tract, and surgical wound infections predominated. Among pathogens implicated in CDC outbreak investigations, Staphylococcus aureus, Enterococcus species, Enterobacteriaceae, nonfermentative Gram-negative bacteria, or yeasts predominated, but unusual organisms (e.g., the atypical mycobacteria) were often included. Outbreak types varied and often were linked to transfer of colonized patients or health care personnel between facilities (multihospital outbreaks), national distribution of contaminated products, use of invasive medical devices, or variances in practices and procedures in health care environments (e.g., intensive care units, water reservoirs, or hemodialysis units). Through partnerships with health care facilities and local and state health departments, outbreaks were terminated and lives saved. Data from investigations invariably contributed to CDC-generated guidelines for prevention and control of health care-associated infections. © 2011 The Author.

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