Jardin Botanico Nacional

Havana, Cuba

Jardin Botanico Nacional

Havana, Cuba
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Schulte K.,James Cook University | Schulte K.,Goethe University Frankfurt | Silvestro D.,Senckenberg Institute | Silvestro D.,Biodiversity and Climate Research Center | And 6 more authors.
Molecular Phylogenetics and Evolution | Year: 2010

The Chilean Puya species constitute a monophyletic group, co-occurring in different species combinations within the country and displaying a remarkable morphological variability. Here, we studied the importance of recent hybridization and introgression in the group and reconstructed the complex inter- and intraspecific relationships. Amplified fragment length polymorphism (AFLP) analysis, including 109 accessions of all Chilean Puya species and four putative hybrids, yielded 984 characters. Three main genetic groups were revealed, with the chilensis group (P. chilensis, P. gilmartiniae, P. boliviensis) diverging first, and the alpestris (P. alpestris, P. berteroniana) and coerulea group (P. venusta, P. coerulea) forming sister groups. STRUCTURE analyses confirmed a hybrid origin of morphologically intermediate individuals, and detected several additional hybrids. Hybrids were found between the chilensis and alpestris group, and between the alpestris and coerulea group. Exclusion of hybrids improved phylogenetic reconstructions. The study demonstrates that the detection of hybrids within Bromeliaceae can be difficult based on morphological characters alone and that efficient reproductive barriers may only slowly establish, leading to hybridization between closely related sympatric species. The importance of hybridization for the rapid diversification of Puya is discussed. © 2010 Elsevier Inc.

Jestrow B.,Florida International University | Jestrow B.,The Fairchild Challenge Program and Center for Tropical Plant Conservation | Rodriguez F.J.,Jardin Botanico Nacional | Francisco-Ortega J.,Florida International University | Francisco-Ortega J.,The Fairchild Challenge Program and Center for Tropical Plant Conservation
Taxon | Year: 2010

The Caribbean Island Biodiversity Hotspot is the largest insular system of the New World and a priority for biodiversity conservation worldwide. The tribe Adelieae (Euphorbiaceae) has over 35 species endemic to this hotspot, representing a prime example of speciation in the West Indies and involving taxa from Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas. These species form a monophyletic group and have traditionally been accommodated in two endemic genera, Lasiocroton and Leucocroton. A study based on scanning electron microscopy of pollen, macromorphology, and molecular analysis was conducted to reveal generic relationships within this group. Phylogenies were based on nucleotide sequences of the nrITS region and the non-coding cpDNA spacers psbM-trnD and ycf6-pcbM. Three major monophyletic assemblages were revealed; one of them is restricted to Hispaniola and is accommodated in a new genus, Garciadelia, with four species. The new genus is sister to a clade comprising two monophyletic groups, one including all species of Leucocroton and restricted to serpentine soils of Cuba, and a second including the species of Lasiocroton, occurring in Cuba, Hispaniola, Jamaica, and the Bahamas. Morphological, biogeographical, and ecological data provided additional support for each of these three monophyletic assemblages. Two new combinations (Lasiocroton microphyllus from Cuba, Garciadelia leprosa from Hispaniola) are made and four new species are described (Lasiocroton gutierrezii from Cuba, and Garciadelia abbottii, G. castilloae, and G. mejiae from Hispaniola).

Jestrow B.,Florida International University | Jestrow B.,Center for Tropical Plant Conservation | Gutierrez Amaro J.,Jardin Botanico Nacional | Francisco-Ortega J.,Florida International University | Francisco-Ortega J.,Center for Tropical Plant Conservation
Journal of Biogeography | Year: 2012

Aim Our aim was to investigate the historical biogeography of the three genera of the Leucocroton alliance (i.e. Garciadelia Jestrow & Jiménez Rodr., Lasiocroton Griseb., and Leucocroton Griseb., Euphorbiaceae). Location The alliance is restricted to the Bahamas, Cuba, Hispaniola and Jamaica. Methods Members of the Leucocroton alliance, along with representatives from tribe Adelieae (Adelia L. and Philyra Klotzsch.), were included in a molecular phylogenetic analysis based upon nucleotide sequences of the internal transcribed spacer region of the nuclear ribosomal DNA and the non-coding chloroplast regions psbM-trnD and ycf6-pcbM. The program s-diva was used to calculate ancestral areas based on the phylogenetic trees and present species distributions. Results Phylogenetic analyses support the monophyly of the three genera. The ancestral area of the Leucocroton alliance is eastern Cuba and Hispaniola. Ancestral forms of Leucocroton arose on eastern Cuba and underwent two migrations across the island. The ancestor of Lasiocroton also originated on eastern Cuba followed by later dispersal to and speciation events on the other islands. Our study also suggests that ancestral forms of the Leucocroton alliance probably occurred on limestone soils. Main conclusions Our study concurs with previous hypotheses suggesting that the flora of serpentinite regions of the Caribbean derives from other types of soils. The serpentine endemics of the Leucocroton alliance have a single origin and represent one of the most extraordinary examples of speciation in this unique environment of the New World. The high colonization success achieved by the members of Leucocroton on serpentine soils was not attained by the other genera of the alliance, which occur on limestone areas. © 2011 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.

Cisternas M.A.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Salazar G.A.,National Autonomous University of Mexico | Verdugo G.,Pontifical Catholic University of Valparaíso | Novoa P.,Jardin Botanico Nacional | And 2 more authors.
Botanical Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2012

The phylogenetic relationships of subtribe Chloraeinae, a group of terrestrial orchids endemic to southern South America, have not been satisfactorily investigated. A previous molecular phylogenetic analysis based on plastid DNA supported the monophyly of Chloraeinae and Gavilea, but showed that Chloraea is non-monophyletic and that the sole species of Bipinnula analysed is sister to Geoblasta. However, that analysis included only 18 of the 73 species belonging to this subtribe. Here, the phylogenetic relationships of Chloraeinae were assessed by analysing aproximately 7500bp of nucleotide sequences from nuclear ribosomal internal transcribed spacer (ITS) and plastid DNA (rbcL, matK, trnL-trnF, rpoB-trnC) for 42 species representing all four currently accepted genera of Chloraeinae and appropriate outgroups. Nuclear and plastid data were analysed separately and in combination using two different methods, namely parsimony and Bayesian inference. Our analyses support the monophyly of Chloraeinae and their inclusion in an expanded concept of Cranichideae, but none of the genera of Chloraeinae that includes more than one species is monophyletic. Gavilea and Bipinnula are paraphyletic, with Chloraea chica nested in Gavilea and Geoblasta penicillata in Bipinnula. As currently delimited, Chloraea is polyphyletic. The taxonomic changes proposed recently are for the most part not justifiable on phylogenetic grounds, except for recognition of the monotypic genus Correorchis. The lack of resolution for the relationships among species of 'core'Chloraea suggests a relatively recent diversification of this group. The current generic classification is in need or revision, but additional study is advisable before carrying out further taxonomic changes. © 2012 The Linnean Society of London.

Sobral A.,National University of Cordoba | Novoa P.,Jardin Botanico Nacional
Boletin de la Sociedad Argentina de Botanica | Year: 2014

A new species of orchid in the genus Chloraea, sect. Foliosae, is described. This species native from La Rioja (Argentina) represents the southernmost limit of distribution of this section, which ranges from Southwestern Peru to Northwestern Argentina. This new taxon is based on significant morphological and phenological differences, together with its geographical isolation relative to the remaining species within the genus Chloraea. The most obvious difference with the most related species (Chloraea praecincta Speg. et Kranzl. and Chloraea reticulata Schlechter) is the color of the labellar lamina, which is deep yellow in the new species and white in the other two. Among other differences C. praecincta do not have nectar pits and C. reticulata has the widened base of the column.

Riveron-Giro F.B.,Colegio de Mexico | Sanchez C.,Jardin Botanico Nacional
Willdenowia | Year: 2015

Two new species of Cuban Tectaria Cav. (Tectariaceae) are described: T. squamosa Riverón-Giró & C. Sánchez and T. caluffii Riverón-Giró & C. Sánchez; both are endemic to E Cuba (provinces of Holguín, Guantánamo and Santiago de Cuba). Tectaria quamosa can be distinguished by the presence of abundant scales throughout the petiole and rachis, sometimes also on the costae, and the apical segment having a pair of basal lobes in which the main vein branches from the rachis, not the costa; it is compared with T. cicutaria (L.) Copel. Tectaria caluffii can be recognized by the presence and position of bulbils (propagules) at all pinnae axils and at the base of the apical segment, and the number and width of the pinnae; it is compared with T. incisa Cav. and T. vivipara Jermy & T. G. Walker. Images of the type specimens of both new species are provided in addition to information about distribution and ecology. © 2015 BGBM Berlin.

Baeza C.M.,University of Concepción | Ruiz E.,University of Concepción | Novoa P.,Jardin Botanico Nacional
Chilean Journal of Agricultural Research | Year: 2010

The karyotype of Alstroemeria diluta subsp. chrysantha Ehr. Bayer from Chile was examined. The species has 2n = 2x = 16 chromosomes, with 4m + 4sm + 2st-sat + 4t + 2t-sat. The reported karyotype is very asymmetrical (AsK % = 71.4 and Syi = 40.0%). This karyotype is similar to that published previously for Alstroemeria graminea Phil.

Morejon Hernandez R.,Jardin Botanico Nacional | Sanchez C.,Jardin Botanico Nacional
Willdenowia | Year: 2013

Polystichum is a nearly cosmopolitan fern genus with 31 species recognized for the Caribbean region. In Cuba, there have been from 11 to 19 taxa recorded, depending on the authors, illustrating the complexity of this group on the island. The examination of more than 2000 herbarium specimens collected in the Greater Antilles allowed the recognition of four taxa not previously recorded from Cuba: P. platyphyllum, P. rhizophorum, P. triangulum and P. woodsioides. In addition, P. deminuens is accepted as a species, P. heterolepis is reduced to the synonymy of P. viviparum, and P. polystichiforme is reduced to the synonymy of P. platyphyllum. Two new combinations are published: P. triangulum subsp. mucronatum (formerly treated as P. mucronatum) and P. submucronatum (formerly known under the illegitimate name, P. woodsioides). One name is raised from varietal to subspecific rank: P. rhizophyllum subsp. cubense. © 2013 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.

Sanchez C.,Jardin Botanico Nacional
Brittonia | Year: 2015

A new combination is provided for the Cuban species Phegopteris sericea in the genus Polystichopsis: Polystichopsis sericea. Also, a lectotype is designated for this species. © 2015, The New York Botanical Garden.

Morejon Hernandez R.,Jardin Botanico Nacional | Sanchez C.,Jardin Botanico Nacional
Willdenowia | Year: 2012

A recent study of about 2500 specimens from 23 herbaria globally complemented a taxonomic study of Cuban species of the genus Polystichum that has been carried out since 2000. Three new taxa of Cuban Polystichum are described: P. decoratum subsp. habanense, P. guajaibonense and P. sanchezii. The differences to allied species are discussed for each taxon. P. decoratum subsp. habanense, endemic to western Cuba, can be distinguished from the nominal subspecies, endemic to eastern Cuba, by the leaf morphology, the presence of a basiscopic auricle on the basal pinnae, pinna margin and position of the sori. P. guajaibonense is endemic to western Cuba and, based on the proliferous flagelliform apex, can be confused with P. machaerophyllum and P. ilicifolium, two species from eastern Cuba, from which it can nevertheless easily be distinguished by the conduplicate petiole scales and the conspicuously serrate margin immediately above the auricles. P. sanchezii co-occurs in central Cuba with P. trapezoides and can be separated from it by the 1-pinnate frond, shorter leaf apices, crenate pinna margin, sharply triangular pinnae auricles and the irregular and bicolored indusium margin. Pictures of the type specimens of each taxon are also provided. © 2012 BGBM Berlin-Dahlem.

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