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Maringá, Brazil

Avaci A.B.,Jardim Universitario | de Souza S.N.M.,West Parana State University | Chaves L.I.,West Parana State University | Nogueira C.E.C.,West Parana State University | And 2 more authors.
Revista Brasileira de Engenharia Agricola e Ambiental | Year: 2013

One of the biggest sources of energy available in rural areas is biomass and agribusiness. The same appears in the form of plant and animal residues such as crop residues, animal manure, energy crops and agro- industrial effluents. These residues can be used by the farmer or agribusiness for direct burning in order to produce heat or production of biogas. Swine production generates large amounts of wastes causing environmental problems if left untreated. The same has lot of methane. The objective of this study was to evaluate the production cost of electricity through biogas from swine manure. It was found that the best option for the producer is selling carbon credit when the production cost of electricity is viable when sold to utility power. The best condition was found to generate 20 h d-1, when the time for return on investment is 8 years and the production of electricity is R$ 120.11 kWh.

Rossi R.M.,State University of Maringa | Martins E.N.,Jardim Universitario | Lopes P.S.,Federal University of Vicosa | Silva F.F.,Federal University of Vicosa
Pesquisa Agropecuaria Brasileira | Year: 2014

The objective of this work was to present alternative uni- and bivariate modeling procedures for the evaluation of feed conversion (FC) of the Piau swine breed, using Bayesian inference. The effects of sex and genotype on animal FC were evaluated by the Markov chain Monte Carlo (MCMC) and the integrated nested Laplace approximation (INLA) procedures. The univariate model was evaluated using different distributions for the error - normal (Gaussian), t-Student, gamma, log-normal, and skew-normal -, whereas, for the bivariate model, the normal error was considered. The skew-normal distribution was the most parsimonious model to infer on the direct response (univariate) of FC to the effects of sex and genotype, which were nonsignificant. The bivariate model was capable to identify significant differences on weight gain and feed intake in significance levels not detected by the univariate model. Moreover, it was also able to detect differences between sexes, when grouped by NN (male, 2.73±0.04; female, 2.68±0.04) and Nn (male, 2.70±0.07; female, 2.64±0.07) genotypes, and revealed greater accuracy and precision for nutritional inferences. In both approaches, the Bayesian method proves flexible and efficient for assessing animal nutritional performance.

Neves M.P.,Jardim Universitario | Delariva R.L.,West Parana State University | Wolff L.L.,West Parana State University
Neotropical Ichthyology | Year: 2015

This study investigated the morphological and dietary relationships of the fish assemblage in a stream with an endemic fauna and low species richness. The ichthyofauna was sampled quarterly from September 2011 to July 2012, through the electrofishing technique. The stomach contents of 419 individuals belonging to seven species were analyzed by the volumetric method, and the ecomorphological traits of 30 specimens of each species were estimated. The main food items consumed were detritus, aquatic and terrestrial insects, and other aquatic invertebrates. We observed low levels of trophic niche breadth and diet overlap between most species. The PCA scores indicated the occurrence of three ecomorphotypes. PCA axis 1 segregated at one extreme, species with dorsoventrally depressed bodies, longer caudal peduncles, and welldeveloped swimming fins; and at the other extreme, species with compressed bodies and peduncles, and relatively larger eyes and anal fins. PCA axis 2 segregated species with elongated bodies and ventrally oblique mouths. The partial Mantel test revealed a significant correlation between diet and morphology, indicating independence from the phylogeny. The patterns observed suggest that the low richness did not result in a broadening of the species’ trophic niches, or in the absence of some of the main ecomorphotypes expected. © 2015 Sociedade Brasileira de Ictiologia.

Brandelero Jr. S.,West Parana State University | Bonfleur M.L.,West Parana State University | Ribeiro R.A.,Federal University of Rio de Janeiro | Vanzela E.C.,University of Campinas | And 4 more authors.
Archives of Oral Biology | Year: 2012

The prevalence of obesity is increasing globally. There is evidence that the uncontrolled energetic metabolism in obese patients can accelerate periodontal disease. Therefore, the aim of this study was evaluate the possible relationship between hypothalamic obesity induced by neonatal treatment with MSG and experimental periodontal disease. Newborn male Wistar rats received subcutaneous injections in the cervical region, of 4g/Kg/day of body weight (BW) of MSG (MSG group) or hypertonic saline solution, 1.25/kg/day BW (control group, CTL). At 70 days of life periodontal disease was induced in these animals. After they were sacrificed, radiographic analyses of alveolar bone resorption and Tumor Necrosis Factor α (TNFα) gene expression in gingival tissue were performed. The neonatal treatment with MSG did not affect the concentration of plasma glucose and cholesterol (CHOL). However, plasma insulin, non-esterified fatty acids (NEFA) and triglycerides (TG) leves were higher in MSG compared with CTL group. The alveolar bone resorption was 44% lower in MSG-obese rats compared with CTL rats. In the presence of periodontal ligature, there was an increase in this parameter in all groups. The TNFα gene expression, an inflammatory marker, in periodontal tissue was similar in obese and CTL rats. The presence of ligature increased TNFα gene expression in both groups, but in a lower extension in MSG-obese rats. In conclusion these results suggested that hypothalamic obesity may produce a protective effect against periodontal disease, however further research is needed to understand the mechanisms involved in this process. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Amaral H.F.,Centro Universitario Filadelfia | Sena J.O.A.,State University of Maringa | Andrade D.S.,Instituto Agronomico Do Parana | Jacome A.G.,Instituto Federal do Para | Caldas R.G.,Jardim Universitario
Semina:Ciencias Agrarias | Year: 2012

This aim of this study was to examine the effects of vineyard management and spatial heterogeneity of soil on chemical and microbial variables in comparison with an adjacent forest fragment. In 2000, two field experiments with Vitis labrusca (L.) were set up on an Oxisol of North Paraná, Brazil. In 2004, soil samples were taken to evaluate the following factors: (i) conventional (CONV) and organic (ORG) vineyard management and (ii) spatial heterogeneity of soil, row or inter-rows cultivation and at different sampling depths (0-10 cm and 10-20 cm), in a split-plot arrangement fitted to a randomized complete block with six replicates. The forest adjacent fragment was considered as undisturbed agricultural (or control) area. Chemical attributes of the soil in the ORG vineyard were improved in comparison to the soil in the forest, at a depth of 0-10 cm, with the exception of total carbon. To microbial carbon (Cmic) values the both factors (vineyard management and special soil heterogeneity) contributed to changes in the contents this microbiological soil attributes in the areas evaluated. While, the spatial heterogeneity of the soil was the main factor to changes in soil microbial basal respiration, with higher values in the CONV rows. Regardless of the depth, the lowest qCO2 values were observed in the soil from the ORG vineyard and the forest. The cluster analysis showed that, represented on the Axis-X, the CONV vineyards, ORG vineyards and forest clustered from the negative to the positive, progressively, indicating greater similarity between ORG and forest. Moreover, when the spatial heterogeneity of the soil was plotted on the Axis-Y, the 0-10 cm layer appeared in the positive portion, and the 10-20 cm layer appeared in the negative portion. In the short term, it appears that different vineyard management methods affected microbial variables and some similarity between ORG and forest soil.

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