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Suto J.-I.,Japan National Institute of Agrobiological Science | Satou K.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health
BMC Research Notes | Year: 2014

Background: Plasma high-density lipoprotein (HDL)-cholesterol level is a clinically important quantitative phenotype that widely varies among inbred mouse strains. Several genes or loci associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels have been identified on autosomes and the X chromosome. In contrast, genes or loci on the Y chromosome have not attracted significant attention hitherto. Therefore, we investigated the effects of the Y chromosome on plasma HDL-cholesterol levels in Y- chromosome-consomic (Y-consomic) mouse strains. Findings. Plasma HDL-cholesterol level data from 16 Y-consomic strains demonstrated that the Y chromosome substitutions significantly altered plasma HDL-cholesterol levels, i.e., variations in the plasma HDL-cholesterol level could be partially explained by Y chromosome genes. We obtained the following results from the genotype data on 30 single nucleotide polymorphisms (SNPs), including nonsynonymous and synonymous SNPs and 9 polymorphisms in Sry: (1) Variation in rs46947134 of Uty was significantly associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels. (2) A CAG repeat number polymorphism in Sry was significantly associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels. (3) Strains with a certain haplotype of the Mus musculus domesticus-type Y chromosome had significantly lower plasma HDL-cholesterol levels than strains with a certain haplotype of the M. m. musculus-type Y chromosome. Conclusions: The effect of the Y chromosome on plasma HDL-cholesterol levels was confirmed in the Y-consomic strains. We identified several variants associated with plasma HDL-cholesterol levels. Because the physiological significance of various Y-linked genes remains unclear, the results of this study will provide further insights into the functions of Y-linked genes in lipid metabolism. © 2014 Suto and Satou; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.


Tagawa Y.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health
Antonie van Leeuwenhoek, International Journal of General and Molecular Microbiology | Year: 2014

Isolated flagellar filaments from the type strain of Bacillus cereus, ATCC 14579, were shown to consist of 34, 32 and 31 kDa proteins in similar proportions as judged by band intensities on sodium dodecyl sulfate–polyacrylamide gel electrophoresis. The N-terminal amino acid sequences of these three proteins of strain ATCC 14579 were identical with the deduced sequences of three flagellin genes BC1657, BC1658 and BC1659 in the whole genome sequence. Strain ATCC 14579 was classified into serotype T2 by a flagellar serotyping scheme for B. cereus strains that are untypeable into known flagellar serotypes H1 to H23. Flagellar filaments from a reference strain of serotype T2 contained two protein bands at 34 and 32 kDa, but a single protein band at 39 kDa was detected in flagellar filaments of a reference strain of serotype H1. Two murine monoclonal antibodies, 1A5 and 2A5, which recognize both the 34 and 32 kDa flagellins and a single flagellin of 32 kDa, respectively, were specifically reactive with B. cereus strains ATCC 14579 and serotype T2 in whole-cell ELISA and bacterial motility inhibition tests. In immunoelectron microscopy with monoclonal antibodies 1A5 and 2A5, colloidal gold spheres were shown to localize almost evenly over the entire part of flagellar filaments. Since strain ATCC 14579, and presumably strain serotype T2, are unusual among B. cereus strains in possessing multiple genes that encode flagellin subunits, a possible unique mechanism may contribute to assembly of multiple flagellin subunits into the filament over its entire length. © 2014, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.


Ito T.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health | Maeno Y.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries And Environment of Inland Sea
Diseases of Aquatic Organisms | Year: 2014

In this study, we examined the influence of water temperature on the development of herpesviral haematopoietic necrosis (HVHN) in goldfish Carassius auratus after experimentally induced infection with cyprinid herpesvirus 2 (CyHV-2). In Expt 1, Ryukin goldfish were infected with CyHV-2 by intraperitoneal injection and maintained at 4 different water temperatures. Cumulative mortalities of the 15, 20, 25 and 30°C groups were 10, 90, 90 and 60%, respectively. Therefore, the temperature range of 20-25°C is considered highly permissive for HVHN. One of 6 surviving fish of the 15°C group died after a rapid temperature increase to 25°C at 30 d post infection. All 3 Edonishiki goldfish, co-reared with the surviving Ryukin in tanks where the water temperature was increased from 15 to 25°C, died. In Expt 2, Edonishiki goldfish were exposed to CyHV-2 by bath immersion at 13 or 24°C, resulting in cumulative mortalities of 0 and 87%, respectively, at 28 d post-exposure. No mortality of the surviving Edonishiki in the 13°C treatment was observed when the water temperature was increased to 24°C. In addition, in Expt 2, no mortality was observed in any Ranchu co-reared with CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki in the group where water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C, even after re-immersion challenge with CyHV-2. It is interesting to note that CyHV-2 DNA was detected in the kidneys of 4 of the 5 surviving Ranchu co-reared with the CyHV-2-immersed Edonishiki group where the water temperature was increased from 13 to 24°C. Therefore, it is likely that the surviving Edonishiki of the 13°C group were virus carriers. This study indicates that most fish infected with CyHV-2 at 13-15°C acquire resistance to HVHN, but as carriers they are able to infect naïve fish. © Inter-Research 2014 · www.int-res.com.


Erysipelothrix rhusiopathiae, the causative agent of swine erysipelas, is a facultative intracellular Gram-positive bacterium. It has been shown that animals immunized with a filtrate from E. rhusiopathiae cultures are protected against lethal challenge. In this study, we identified and characterized the extracellular proteins of E. rhusiopathiae to search for novel vaccine antigens. A concentrated culture supernatant from the E. rhusiopathiae Fujisawa strain, which has been found to induce protection in mice, was analyzed using two-dimensional electrophoresis. From more than 40 confirmed protein spots, 16 major protein spots were selected and subjected to N-terminal amino acid sequence determination, and 14 protein spots were successfully identified. The identified proteins included housekeeping proteins and other metabolic enzymes. We searched for surface-localized proteins by analyzing the genomes of two E. rhusiopathiae strains: Fujisawa and ATCC 19414. Genome analysis revealed that the ATCC 19414 strain has three putative surface-exposed choline-binding proteins (CBPs): CbpA, CbpB, and CbpC. Each CBP contains a putative choline-binding domain. The CbpC gene is mutated in Fujisawa, becoming a nonfunctional pseudogene. Immunogold electron microscopy confirmed that CbpA and CbpB, as well as the majority of the metabolic enzymes examined, are associated with the cell surface of E. rhusiopathiae Fujisawa. Immunization with recombinant CbpB, but not with other recombinant CBPs or metabolic enzymes, protected mice against lethal challenge. A phagocytosis assay revealed that antiserum against CbpB promoted opsonin-mediated phagocytosis by murine macrophages in vitro. The protective capabilities of CbpB were confirmed in pigs, suggesting that CbpB could be used as a vaccine antigen.


Yoshioka K.,Japanese National Institute of Animal Health
Journal of Reproduction and Development | Year: 2011

Recent advances in systems for in vitro production (IVP) of porcine embryos, including in vitro oocyte maturation, fertilization and embryo culture, have enabled us to generate viable embryos that can develop to full term after transfer into recipients. This technology is being applied now to developments in gamete/embryo biology and agriculture, as well as in producing cloned and genetically modified pigs. Chemically defined media for IVP of embryos are useful for a precise analysis of the physical action of substances on gametogenesis and early embryogenesis, because they eliminate undefined factors present in biological materials, such as serum or serum albumin. Use of a chemically defined medium also improves the reliability of media formulations, yields a higher reproducibility of results and ensures biosafety of culture media by eliminating protein preparations, which may be contaminated with pathogens. Therefore, it has certain advantages for research and for commercial purposes. We have recently developed a defined IVP system for porcine embryos using a single basic medium based on the composition of porcine oviductal fluid. This paper discusses the developmental ability and normality of porcine IVP embryos, and limitations and advancements in this system. © 2011 by the Society for Reproduction and Development.

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