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Rosseland L.A.,University of Oslo | Hauge T.H.,Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry | Grindheim G.,University of Oslo | Stubhaug A.,University of Oslo | Langesaeter E.,University of Oslo

BACKGROUND:: Little is known about maternal hemodynamics after Cesarean delivery. Uterine contractions may increase cardiac output. Oxytocin is the first-line treatment for uterine atony, although the effects of the long-acting oxytocin analogue carbetocin are comparable with that of oxytocin. The authors analyzed the effects of i.v. oxytocin 5 U, carbetocin 100 μg, and placebo on hemodynamics, uterine tone, adverse events, and blood loss after Cesarean delivery. METHODS:: This was a randomized, double-blinded, placebo-controlled, parallel-group comparison of carbetocin and oxytocin after elective Cesarean delivery of singletons under spinal anesthesia (n = 76). Continuously measured invasive systolic arterial pressure was the primary outcome measure. RESULTS:: The mean systolic arterial pressure decrease was 28 mmHg (95% CI, 22-34) after oxytocin and 26 mmHg (95% CI, 20-31) after carbetocin. The decrease was greatest after 80 (95% CI, 71-89) and 63 s (95% CI, 55-72), respectively (P = 0.006). The differences were nearly undetectable after 2.5 min, although the effect of carbetocin was slightly greater than placebo (P < 0.001). The group differences in systolic arterial pressure decreased over 5 min and were gone at 1 h. Heart rate and cardiac output increased in all three groups. Stroke volume increased after oxytocin and carbetocin but was unchanged after placebo. CONCLUSIONS:: The hemodynamic side effects of oxytocin 5 U and carbetocin 100 μg were comparable. The lack of an increase in stroke volume in the placebo group challenges the theory that uterine contraction causes autotransfusion of uterine blood, leading to an increase in preload. Copyright © 2013, the American Society of Anesthesiologists, Inc. Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

Denstadli J.M.,Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics | Gripsrud M.,Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry | Hjorthol R.,Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics | Julsrud T.E.,Norwegian Institute of Transport Economics
Transportation Research Part C: Emerging Technologies

Videoconferencing is a technology in transit, with innovative platforms providing new communications opportunities and forms of co-operation. Although research has been occupied with the videoconferencing-business travel relationship for some time, little attention has been given to the diversity of the technology and how new technological platforms can create new interfaces with business travel. In this study, we summarize the emergence of videoconferencing as a business communication tool and emphasize the most recent developments. Data from a survey of business air passengers are used to examine access to different types of videoconferencing platforms and their interfaces with travel and face-to-face meetings. Results demonstrate an overall positive relationship between videoconferencing and business air travel, i.e., business people who travel a lot by air tend to participate in many video-meetings. However, the data also show large variations in travel and videoconferencing usage, and a substantial proportion of the respondents express a belief in travel replacement. Results from a regression analysis shows that respondents who have access to in-house videoconferencing rooms are more likely to believe in substitution than are those who only have available " new" technologies (e.g. videoconferencing for PC/Mac), even after controlling for individual and company characteristics. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Iatridis G.E.,University of Thessaly | Iatridis G.E.,Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry
Emerging Markets Review

This study focuses on common-law Malaysia, which is classified as an advanced emerging market. It assesses the association between environmental disclosure and environmental performance and examines the financial attributes of companies with different environmental disclosure scores. It investigates the relation between environmental disclosure quality and corporate governance, and also examines the extent to which effective environmental disclosures are value relevant and how they influence investor perceptions. The findings of the study show that environmental disclosure is positively linked to environmental performance. Company attributes, such as large size, the need for capital, profitability and capital spending, are positively associated with environmental disclosure quality. High quality environmental disclosers display effective corporate governance and would tend to face less difficulties in accessing capital markets. They generally are audited by a big 4 auditor or cross-listed on foreign stock exchanges and display significant levels of managerial and institutional ownership. High quality environmental disclosures are value relevant and improve investor perceptions. High quality disclosers overall belong to beverages, chemicals, food producers, forestry and paper, and industrial metals and mining. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Bhattacharyya S.C.,University of Dundee | Matsumura W.,Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry

This paper analyses the reduction in greenhouse gas emissions in 15 countries of the European Union between 1990 and 2007 to find out the contribution of different countries. Using the log-mean Divisia index decomposition approach, it identifies the driving factors of emissions related to energy and other industrial activities. It also focuses on two success cases (namely Germany and the United Kingdom) and contrasts the developments with two less successful cases (namely Spain and Italy). A scenario analysis is then used to indicate the emission reduction possibility through cross-learning. The study shows that the emission intensity has reduced significantly in both energy-related activities and other processes at the aggregate level, while the performance varies significantly at the individual country level. Changes in the energy mix, a reduction in energy intensity and a reduction in the emission intensity from other process-related emissions were mainly responsible for the success in the EU-15. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Hamada A.,University of Tokyo | Murayama Y.,Japanese Ministry of Economy, Trade, and Industry | Takayabu Y.N.,University of Tokyo
Journal of Climate

Characteristics and global distribution of regional extreme rainfall are presented using 12 yr of the Tropical Rainfall Measuring Mission (TRMM) Precipitation Radar (PR) measurements. By considering each rainfall event as a set of contiguous PR rainy pixels, characteristic values for each event are obtained. Regional extreme rainfall events are defined as those in which maximum near-surface rainfall rates are higher than the corresponding 99.9th percentile on a 2.5° 3 2.5° horizontal-resolution grid. The geographical distribution of extreme rainfall rates shows clear regional differences. The size and volumetric rainfall of extreme events also show clear regional differences. Extreme rainfall rates show good correlations with the corresponding rain-top heights and event sizes over oceans but marginal or no correlation over land. The time of maximum occurrence of extreme rainfall events tends to be during 0000-1200 LT over oceans, whereas it has a distinct afternoon peak over land. There are also clear seasonal differences in which the occurrence over land is largely coincident with insolation. Regional extreme rainfall is classified by extreme rainfall rate (intensity) and the corresponding event size (extensity). Regions of "intense and extensive" extreme rainfall are found mainly over oceans near coastal areas and are likely associated with tropical cyclones and convective systems associated with the establishment of monsoons. Regions of "intense but less extensive" extreme rainfall are distributed widely over land and maritime continents, probably related to afternoon showers and mesoscale convective systems. Regions of "extensive but less intense" extreme rainfall are found almost exclusively over oceans, likely associated with well-organized mesoscale convective systems and extratropical cyclones. © 2014 American Meteorological Society. Source

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