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Matsusaka S.,Cancer Institute Hospital of the Japanese Foundation for Cancer Research | Nashimoto A.,Niigata Prefectural Cancer Center Niigata Hospital | Nishikawa K.,Osaka General Medical Center | Miki A.,Kobe City Medical Center General Hospital | And 11 more authors.
Gastric Cancer | Year: 2015

Background: Human epidermal growth factor (HER) 2 positivity and its association with clinicopathological factors remain unclear in Japanese gastric cancer (GC) patients. We performed a prospective, multicenter, observational cohort study to evaluate HER2 protein expression and gene amplification in Japanese metastatic and recurrent GC patients, and explored its correlations with clinicopathological features. Methods: HER2 protein expression and gene amplification were centrally assessed in formalin-fixed, paraffin-embedded GC tissue by immunohistochemistry (IHC) and fluorescence in situ hybridization (FISH). Patient information was collected, and associations between clinicopathological factors and HER2 positivity (IHC score 3+ and/or FISH positive) and low HER2 expression (IHC score 0/FISH positive or IHC score 1+/FISH positive) were examined. Results: From September 2011 to June 2012, 1461 patients were registered across 157 sites, and the HER2 status of 1427 patients was evaluated. The rate of HER2 positivity was 21.2 %, whereas the rate of high HER2 expression (IHC score 2+/FISH positive or IHC score 3+) was 15.6 % and that of low HER2 expression was 7.0 %. Multiple logistic regression analysis identified intestinal type, absence of peritoneal metastasis, and hepatic metastasis as significant independent factors related to HER2 positivity. The intestinal type was confirmed to be the GC subtype predominantly associated with lower HER2 expression. Sampling conditions including number of biopsy samples, formalin concentration, and formalin-fixation time did not significantly affect HER2 positivity. Conclusions: HER2 expression in Japanese patients was comparable to that in other populations examined. Intestinal type was an independent factor related to HER2 positivity and low HER2 expression. © 2015 The Author(s) Source

Oki E.,Kyushu University | Murata A.,Hirosaki University | Yoshida K.,Gifu University | Maeda K.,Osaka City University | And 13 more authors.
Annals of Oncology | Year: 2016

Backgrounds: Preventing distant recurrence and achieving local control are important challenges in rectal cancer treatment, and use of adjuvant chemotherapy has been studied. However, no phase III study comparing adjuvant chemotherapy regimens for rectal cancer has demonstrated superiority of a specific regimen. We therefore conducted a phase III study to evaluate the superiority of S-1 to tegafur-uracil (UFT), a standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for curatively resected stage II/III rectal cancer in Japan, in the adjuvant setting for rectal cancer. Patients and methods: The ACTS-RC trial was an open-label, randomized, phase III superiority trial conducted at 222sites in Japan. Patients aged 20-80 with stage II/III rectal cancer undergoing curative surgery without preoperative therapy were randomly assigned to receive UFT (500-600 mg/day on days 1-5, followed by 2 days rest) or S-1 (80-120 mg/day on days 1-28, followed by 14 days rest) for 1 year. The primary end point was relapse-free survival (RFS), and the secondary end points were overall survival and adverse events. Results: In total, 961 patients were enrolled from April 2006 to March 2009. The primary analysis was conducted in 480 assigned to receive UFT and 479 assigned to receive S-1. Five-year RFS was 61.7% [95% confidence interval (CI) 57.1% to 65.9%] for UFT and 66.4% (95% CI 61.9% to 70.5%) for S-1 [P = 0.0165, hazard ratio (HR): 0.77, 95% CI 0.63-0.96].Five-year survival was 80.2% (95% CI 76.3% to 83.5%) for UFT and 82.0% (95% CI 78.3% to 85.2%) for S-1. The main grade 3 or higher adverse events were increased alanine aminotransferase and diarrhea (each 2.3%) in the UFT arm and anorexia, diarrhea (each 2.6%), and fatigue (2.1%) in the S-1 arm. Conclusion: One-year S-1 treatment is superior to UFT with respect to RFS and has therefore become a standard adjuvant chemotherapy regimen for stage II/III rectal cancer following curative resection. © The Author 2016. Source

Yoshikawa K.,Tokushima University | Shimada M.,Tokushima University | Wakabayashi G.,Iwate Medical University | Ishida K.,Osaka Minami Medical Center | And 14 more authors.
Journal of the American College of Surgeons | Year: 2015

Background Daikenchuto (DKT) has widely been used to improve abdominal symptoms by being expected to accelerate bowel motility. The purpose of this study is to examine the efficacy and safety of DKT for prevention of ileus and associated gastrointestinal symptoms after total gastrectomy. Study Design Two hundred and forty-five gastric cancer patients who underwent total gastrectomy were enrolled. Patients received either DKT (15.0 g/d) or matching placebo from postoperative days 1 to 12. Primary end points were time to first flatus, time to first bowel movement (BM), and frequency of BM. Secondary end points included quality of life, C-reactive protein level, symptoms indicative of a severe gastrointestinal disorder, and incidence of postoperative ileus. Results A total of 195 patients (DKT, n = 96; placebo, n = 99) were included in the per-protocol set analysis. There were no significant differences between the groups in terms of patient background characteristics. Median time to first BM was shorter in the DKT group than in the placebo group (94.7 hours vs 113.9 hours; p = 0.051). In patients with high medication adherence, median time to first BM was significantly shorter in the DKT group than in the placebo group (93.8 hours vs 115.1 hours; p = 0.014). Significantly fewer patients in the DKT group had ≥2 symptoms of gastrointestinal dysfunction than those in the placebo group on postoperative day 12 (p = 0.026). Conclusions Administration of DKT during the immediate postoperative period after total gastrectomy appears to promote early recovery of postoperative bowel function. © 2015 American College of Surgeons. Source

Chanplakorn N.,Tohoku University | Chanplakorn N.,Mahidol University | Chanplakorn P.,Tohoku University | Chanplakorn P.,Mahidol University | And 8 more authors.
Breast Cancer Research and Treatment | Year: 2010

Aromatase inhibitors (AIs) are considered the gold standard for endocrine therapy of estrogen receptor (ER) positive postmenopausal breast cancer patients. The therapy may enhance therapeutic response and stabilize disease but resistance and disease progression inevitably occur in the patients. These are considered at least partly due to an emergence of alternative intratumoral estrogen production pathways. Therefore, in this study we evaluated effects of exemestane (EXE) upon the enzymes involved in intratumoral estrogen production including estrogen sulfatase (STS), 17beta;-hydroxysteroid dehydrogenase type 1 (17β-HSD1), and estrogen sulfotransferase (EST) and correlated the findings with therapeutic responses including Ki67 labeling index (Ki67). 116 postmenopausal patients with invasive ductal carcinoma, stage II/IIIa, were enrolled in JFMC34-0601 clinical trials between March, 2006 and January, 2008. EXE of 25 mg/day was administered according to the protocol. Pre- and posttreatment specimens of 49 cases were available for this study. Status of STS, EST, 17β-HSDl, ER, progesterone receptor (PgR), human epidermal growth factor receptor type 2 (Her2), and Ki67 in pre- and post-specimens were evaluated. Specimens examined before the therapy demonstrated following features; ER+ (100%), PgR+ (85.7%), and Her2+ (77.6%). After treatment, the number of Ki67, PgR, and ER positive carcinoma cells demonstrated significant decrement in clinical response (CIiR) and pathological response (PaR) groups. Significant increment of 17β-HSDl and STS immunoreactivity was detected in all groups examined except for STS in PaR. EST showed significant increment in nonresponsive groups. Alterations of Ki67 of carcinoma cells before and after therapy were subclassified into three groups according to its degrees. Significant alterations of intratumoral enzymes, especially 17β-HSD1 and STS, were correlated with Ki67 reduction after neoadjuvant EXE therapy. This is the first study demonstrating significant increment of STS and 17β-HSD1 following AI neoadjuvant therapy of postmenopausal ER positive breast carcinoma patients. This increment may represent the compensatory response of breast carcinoma tissues to estrogen depletion. Source

Komatsu Y.,Hokkaido University | Takahashi Y.,International University of Health and Welfare | Kimura Y.,Nippon Telegraph and Telephone | Oda H.,Kushiro Rosai Hospital | And 10 more authors.
Anti-Cancer Drugs | Year: 2011

The pharmacokinetics of irinotecan vary markedly between individuals. This study sought to compare tailored irinotecan and S-1 therapy with S-1 monotherapy for the treatment of patients with advanced/recurrent gastric cancer. Patients with advanced/recurrent gastric cancer were randomized to receive tailored irinotecan and S-1 (arm A) therapy or S-1 therapy alone (arm B). Arm A received S-1 (80-120 mg/m/day) for 14 days, with irinotecan on days 1 and 15. The initial irinotecan dose of 75 mg/m (level 0) was adjusted for toxicity during an earlier course. In arm B, S-1 (80-120 mg/day) was administered alone for 28 days, followed by 14 days without therapy. Ninety-five patients were randomized (48 patients to arm A and 47 patients to arm B). The response rate of the primary tumor (Japanese criteria) was 25.0% in arm A (12 of 48 patients) and 14.9% in arm B (seven of 47 patients), whereas the response rates according to Response Evaluation Criteria In Solid Tumors were 27.8% (10 of 36) versus 21.9% (seven of 32). Hematological toxicity, anorexia, and diarrhea were significantly more common in arm A, but both arms had similar grades 3-4 toxicities. These findings suggest the usefulness of tailored irinotecan and S-1 therapy for gastric cancer. © 2011 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins. Source

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