Japanese Apricot Laboratory

Minabe, Japan

Japanese Apricot Laboratory

Minabe, Japan

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Tsuchida Y.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory | Yakushiji H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Oe T.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory | Negoro K.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory | And 6 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2014

Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold & zucc.) fruits of 'Nanko' have softer flesh than those of 'Gojiro'. Therefore, there are differences in the processability of these cultivars. We investigated the characteristics of cell-wall polysaccharide degradation that significantly affects fruit firmness in these 2 cultivars at unripe, ripe, and drop stages. Fruit firmness of 'Gojiro' was maintained during unripe and ripe stages and decreased after the ripe stage, while that of 'Nanko' decreased constantly and was lower than that of 'Gojiro' at ripe and drop stages. Amount of the pectin and the hemicellulose substances decreased commonly in 'Gojiro' and 'Nanko' in the process of fruit softening, in addition, decrease in mol wt of these polysaccharides significantly synchronized with decrease in fruit firmness, suggesting that degradation of the pectin and the hemicellulose cause the softening of Japanese apricot fruits. The amount of neutral sugar (NS) and uronic acid (UA) in the pectin fraction and NS in the hemicellulose fraction in 'Nanko' decreased more than in 'Gojiro'. Moreover, the cellulose content of 'Nanko' decreased during the fruit-softening process. These results suggest that higher degradation of pectin, hemicellulose, and cellulose in 'Nanko' fruits would result in softer fruits than 'Gojiro'. © 2014 The Japanese Society for Horticultural Science (JSHS), All right reserved.


Tsuchida Y.,Japanese Apricot laboratory | Yakushiji H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Jomura N.,Japanese Apricot laboratory | Okamuro M.,Japanese Apricot laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Scientia Horticulturae | Year: 2015

Changes in concentration of carbohydrates in three forms-soluble sugars, starch, and cell-wall material (CWM) assimilated each month from summer (August; 2 months after harvest) to late fall (November; just before defoliation)-in organs of Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold et Zucc.) Nanko" were determined until May of the following season by providing 13CO2. 13C concentrations in the nonstructural carbohydrates (soluble sugar and starch) in the foliar and flower buds were higher than those in the current twigs and fine roots, suggesting that these organs are large sinks of reserve carbohydrates. However, they decreased sharply along with growth and were low in all the organs at the beginning of May. In contrast, a large amount of 13C was fixed in the CWM of older twigs. These results indicate that reserve carbohydrates contribute to the growth of young shoots and fruits until the beginning of May, after which their growth depends on current assimilates. Carbohydrates assimilated in August-November were mainly transported to twigs, roots, trunk, and flowers, respectively. These findings show that carbohydrates assimilated in each month contribute to different organs. Thus, leaves should be maintained healthy until defoliation to produce substantial amounts of carbohydrate reserves for stable fruit production from Japanese apricot tree. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Tsuchida Y.,Japanese Apricot laboratory | Yoshihara T.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Yakushiji H.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Jomura N.,Japanese Apricot laboratory | And 3 more authors.
Journal of the Japanese Society for Horticultural Science | Year: 2012

The changes in the volume of carbohydrates assimilated each month from summer (Aug.; 2 months after harvest) to late fall (Nov.; just before defoliation) in each organ of the Japanese apricot (Prunus mume Siebold & Zucc.) 'Nanko' tree were determined until May the following season. The 13C concentrations in the young fruits and new leaves were significantly low at the beginning of May. This phenomenon indicates that their growth depends on current instead of reserve carbohydrates. In May, carbohydrates assimilated in Aug., Sep., and Oct. were mainly transported to 2-year-old twigs (current twigs at 13C feeding time), roots, and trunk, respectively. Carbohydrates assimilated in Nov. were mainly transported to the flower buds with subsequent flowering at a significantly greater level, and barely transported to the perennial organs. These findings show that carbohydrates that are assimilated each month contribute to different organs and, particularly, that those assimilated in Nov. are important for the growth of flower buds and subsequent flowers; therefore, healthy leaves should be maintained until defoliation for stable production of the fruit of the Japanese apricot tree. © 2012.


Kitamura Y.,Kyoto University | Kitamura Y.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory | Takeuchi T.,Kyoto University | Yamane H.,Kyoto University | Tao R.,Kyoto University
Journal of Horticultural Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2016

In temperate deciduous fruit crops such as Prunus spp., bud endodormancy is an important physiological phase affecting the timing of blooming and subsequent fruit development. Japanese apricot (Prunus mume) bears unmixed flower buds, separate from vegetative buds, that bloom slightly more than a month before vegetative bud burst. Seasonal expression of Prunus mume DORMANCY ASSOCIATED MADS-box genes (PmDAMs) has previously been analyzed only in vegetative buds, with an association between these genes and flower bud endodormancy release not yet confirmed. In this study, we performed a seasonal expression analysis of PmDAM1-6 genes in flower buds of two Japanese apricot genotypes - namely, high-chill and low-chill cultivars. The analysis revealed that PmDAM3, PmDAM5, and PmDAM6 expressions are closely associated with dormancy release in both flower and vegetative buds. In addition, a yeast two-hybrid screening demonstrated that PmDAM6 can interact in yeast with the homolog of Arabidopsis SOC1 (PmSOC1). Synchronized expression patterns were detected in PmDAM6 and PmSOC1 during dormancy release in flower buds of the two genotypes. Taken together, these results suggest that the dimer of PmDAM6 and PmSOC1 may play a role in the regulation of dormancy transition and blooming time in Japanese apricot flower buds. © 2016 The Journal of Horticultural Science & Biotechnology Trust.


Kishi M.,Japanese Apricot Laboratory | Matsuno S.,Wakayama Prefectural Museum of Natural History
Japanese Journal of Applied Entomology and Zoology | Year: 2015

The sex of adults of Phenolia (Lasiodites) picta (MacLeay) is distinguished by the morphology of the pygidium and the presence of a well sclerotized tergite VIII in males. These differences are visible under a binocular microscope at a low magnification (15×). As the difference between the sexes can be distinguished without killing specimens, it can be used to observe the specific behaviors of females and males and in ecological research.

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