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Sekiyama M.,University of Tokyo | Roosita K.,Bogor Agricultural University | Ohtsuka R.,Japan Wildlife Research Center
Asia Pacific Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2012

Dietary habits of children, including snack foods consumption, in developing countries have seldom been investigated in relation to their nutrition and health. To assess the effects of snack foods consumption of 154 children aged 1-12 years in a rural village of West Java, Indonesia, a 3-hour-interval food recall survey for all meals and snack foods consumed in seven consecutive days for each subject, anthropometry, and interviews for sociodemographic indicators were conducted. Their overall prevalence of stunting and underweight was 69.5% and 35.7%. There were 221 foods consumed by the subjects, among which 68 foods were categorized as snack foods. Though the children of both <7 year and ≥7 year age groups consumed snack foods similarly throughout the day, the latter group only consumed larger amounts of energy from snack foods at school recess-times. The mean percent contribution of snack foods was 59.6% for fat, 40.0% for energy, 20.6% for calcium, and <10% for vitamins A and C. Half number of the subjects who snacked more than the median amount consumed less carbohydrate and vitamin C than the remaining half. Furthermore, the more snack-consuming group the lower z score for height-for-age (HAZ) among schoolchildren. To improve this nutritionally vulnerable situation, consumption of snack foods should be replaced by the non-snack foods which contain much higher nutrient density, i.e., 15 times for calcium and 32 times for vitamin A. Moreover, considering high snack foods consumption of ≥7 y age group at school, appropriate school nutrition programs should be promoted.


Fukasawa K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Hashimoto T.,Japan Wildlife Research Center | Abe S.,Naha Nature Conservation Office
Journal of Applied Ecology | Year: 2013

Summary: An understanding of the underlying processes and comprehensive history of invasive species is necessary to assess the long-term effectiveness of invasive species management. However, continuous, long-term labour-intensive population surveys on invasive species are often not feasible. Thus, it is important to learn about their dynamics through management action and its consequences.  Amami Island, Japan, has an ongoing large-scale and long-term eradication programme of invasive small Indian mongooses. To estimate the long-term pattern of population size and the parameters determining the dynamics, including anthropogenic removal, we applied a surplus-production model within a Bayesian state-space formulation incorporating the initial population size, number of captures and capture effort. Using the estimated process model directly, we conducted stochastic simulations to evaluate the feasibility of eradication.  Estimated 32-year annual capture probability of mongooses has increased since their introduction. The population size started to decline in 2001; mean population size in 2000 was 6141 (95% CI: 5415-6817), and declined to 169 (95% CI: 42-408) by 2011. Parameter estimates of a Weibull catchability model indicated that there was large individual heterogeneity in the probability of being captured, and per-effort capture probability declined with an increase in annual capture effort.  The simulation study indicated that the eradication feasibility in 2023 would be over 90% if the same annual capture effort is upheld as in 2010 (2 075 760 corrected trap-days). However, increasing annual capture effort would have little effect on shortening the time to eradication.  Synthesis and applications. A hierarchical model that incorporates multiple types of data to reveal long-term population dynamics has the potential to be updated with the outcomes of control efforts, and will enhance adaptive management of invasive species. This approach will offer valuable information about trade-offs between time to eradication success and effort per unit time in a long-term eradication project, and the length of time needed to continue management actions to achieve eradication success. A hierarchical model that incorporates multiple types of data to reveal long-term population dynamics has the potential to be updated with the outcomes of control efforts, and will enhance adaptive management of invasive species. This approach will offer valuable information about trade-offs between time to eradication success and effort per unit time in a long-term eradication project, and the length of time needed to continue management actions to achieve eradication success. © 2013 British Ecological Society.


Numazawa M.,Frog House | Sengoku S.,Japan Wildlife Research Center
Current Herpetology | Year: 2011

Courtship and nesting behaviors and some reproductive parameters were reported for Eleutherodactylus monensis, a terrestrial leptdactylid frog endemic to Mona Island, Puerto Rico, for the first time on the basis of captive observations of two males and one female. The female, captured in the wild in April 1996, produced a total of 22 clutches, each consisting of 5-28 eggs (x̄±SD: 16.2±4.55), at intervals of 14-59 days (25±15.91) from December 1997 to May 2001. Approximately five days before each oviposition, the female started digging the ground with her hind-legs to make a nest concavity. Then, the female temporarily left the concavity, during which one of the males entered therein and started digging also with his hind-legs. The nest concavity eventually got to approximately 37-43 mm in diameter and 10-15 mm in depth. Then, the male moved out of it and started amplexus by mounting and holding the female. The amplectant pair moved to the concavity and the female resumed digging with her hind-legs. She, then, laid a clutch of eggs and buried it also with her hind-legs at a depth of approximately 5 to 40 mm and diameter of approximately 30 to 45 mm. The froglets, weighing 38-67 mg (57.9±6.12), hatched 15-23 days (18.8±2.86) after oviposition. © 2011 by The Herpetological Society of Japan.


Suguro T.,6 39 I Gontazaka | Nagano H.,Japan Wildlife Research Center
Acta Arachnologica | Year: 2015

A new salticid species of the genus Ictus is described as Icius rugosus, from Mukojima, Anijima and Hahajima Islands of the Ogasawara Islands, Japan. This species resembles the generic type I. hamatus (С. L. Koch 1846) but can be distinguished from the latter by genital morphologies in both sexes and male chelicera with ventral wrinkles. Additionally, I. daisetsuzartus Saito 1934 is newly synonymized with Sitticus ranieri (Peckham & Peckham 1909), as Matsuda (1997) pointed out first. As a result, Japanese species belonging to this genus is only the new species for the present. © 2015, Arachnological Society of Japan. All rights reserved.


Kubota A.,Ehime University | Kubota A.,Woods Hole Oceanographic Institution | Watanabe M.X.,Ehime University | Kim E.-Y.,Kyung Hee University | And 3 more authors.
Environmental Pollution | Year: 2012

To validate the outcome of the national regulation on dioxins emission implemented in 1999, this study investigated temporal trends of chlorinated dioxins and related compounds (DRCs) in liver of common cormorants (Phalacrocorax carbo) collected from Lake Biwa, Japan between 2001 and 2008, as a part of the "Survey on the State of Dioxins Accumulation in Wildlife" conducted by the Ministry of the Environment, Japan. We also measured a biomarker of DRCs exposure, the cytochrome P450 1A (CYP1A)-dependent O-dealkylation activity of alkoxyresorufins (AROD), including methoxy-, ethoxy-, pentoxy- and benzyloxy-resorufins in the samples over 2001-2007. Neither TEQ nor AROD activity showed any clear declining trend over the time period, although the emission of DRCs during the corresponding period was estimated to be apparently decreasing. Our data indicate that the concentration of recalcitrant DRCs in the cormorant during 2001-2008 was scarcely affected by the national regulation on dioxins emission. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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