Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute

Hyogo, Japan

Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute

Hyogo, Japan

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Mizutani R.,Tokai University | Suzuki Y.,Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute
Micron | Year: 2012

Progress in high-resolution X-ray microtomography has provided us with a practical approach to determining three-dimensional (3D) structures of opaque samples at micrometer to submicrometer resolution. In this review, we give an introduction to hard X-ray microtomography and its application to the visualization of 3D structures of biological soft tissues. Practical aspects of sample preparation, handling, data collection, 3D reconstruction, and structure analysis are described. Furthermore, different sample contrasting methods are approached in detail. Examples of microtomographic studies are overviewed to present an outline of biological applications of X-ray microtomography. We also provide perspectives of biological microtomography as the convergence of sciences in X-ray optics, biology, and structural analysis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.


Tamenori Y.,Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation | Year: 2013

Ambient-pressure soft X-ray photoabsorption spectroscopy (XAS) was demonstrated to be applicable to the chemical analysis of hydrated transition-metal compounds. For this purpose, even under ambient-pressure conditions, electron yield detection XAS (EY-XAS), based on a simple drain-current set-up, was used to overcome a weakness in fluorescence yield detection XAS (FY-XAS), which does not give a pure soft XAS. The feasibility of EY-XAS was investigated and it was clarified that the EY-XAS under ambient-pressure conditions corresponds to the mixed data of the total EY and conversion EY spectra. Normal ambient-pressure EY-XAS analysis was applied to anhydrous (CoCl2) and to hydrated (CoCl2·6H2O) cobalt chloride at the Co L 23-edge. The present measurements demonstrated the ability to unambiguously distinguish the different chemical states of cobalt ions, relying upon spectral differences that indicate octahedral/quasi-octahedral structural changes as a result of hydration/dehydration reactions. © 2013 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore-all rights reserved.


Iwamoto H.,Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute
Biochemical and Biophysical Research Communications | Year: 2013

Stretch-induced enhancement of active force (stretch activation, SA) is observed in striated muscles in general, and most conspicuously in insect flight muscle (IFM). It remains unclear whether a common mechanism underlies the SA of all muscle types, or the SA of IFM relies on its highly specialized features. Recent studies suggest that IFM-specific isoforms of thin filament regulatory proteins (troponin and tropomyosin) are implicated in SA. Among others, IFM-specific troponin-I (troponin-H or TnH), with an unusually long Pro-Ala-rich extension at the C-terminus, has been speculated to transmit the mechanical signal of stretch to the troponin complex. To verify this hypothesis, it was removed by a specific endoproteinase in bumblebee IFM, expecting that it would eliminate SA while leaving intact the capacity for Ca2+-activated isometric force. Electrophoretic data showed that the extension was almost completely (97%) removed from IFM fibers after treatment. Unexpectedly, SA force was still conspicuous, and its rate of rise was not affected. Therefore, the results preclude the possibility that the extension is a main part of the mechanism of SA. This leaves open the possibility that SAs of IFM and vertebrate striated muscles, which lack the extension, operate under common basic mechanisms. © 2012 Elsevier Inc.


Tamenori Y.,Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute
Journal of Synchrotron Radiation | Year: 2010

A novel design for a differential pumping system has been investigated. This system allows windowless experiments in a soft X-ray beamline under normal atmospheric conditions. The new design consists of an aperture-based four-stage differential pumping system, based on a simple model calculation. A prototype system with a total length of 600 mm was constructed to confirm the validity of the design concept. Relatively short conductance-limiting components allow easy installation and alignment of the system on a synchrotron beamline. The fabricated system was installed on a beamline to test the transmission of soft X-rays through atmospheric helium. © 2010 International Union of Crystallography Printed in Singapore - All rights reserved.


Patent
Kobe University and Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute | Date: 2012-05-23

An object of the present invention is to provide a co-crystal of a Ras polypeptide which adopts a conformation having a pocket on the molecular surface of Ras and GTP or a GTP analog, a production method for the crystal, and a screening method for a Ras function inhibitor based on information about the conformation obtained by X-ray crystallographic analysis using the crystal. The object is achieved by focusing on a mutation which adopts a conformation having a pocket on the molecular surface of Ras, acquiring a mutant Ras polypeptide having introduced therein such mutation, producing a co-crystal of the mutant Ras polypeptide and a GTP analog, and further subjecting the co-crystal to X-ray crystallographic analysis to acquire structural information about the conformation including information about the structure surrounding the pocket.


Patent
Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute and Kobe University | Date: 2010-07-13

An object of the present invention is to provide a co-crystal of a Ras polypeptide which adopts a conformation having a pocket on the molecular surface of Ras and GTP or a GTP analog, a production method for the crystal, and a screening method for a Ras function inhibitor based on information about the conformation obtained by X-ray crystallographic analysis using the crystal. The object is achieved by focusing on a mutation which adopts a conformation having a pocket on the molecular surface of Ras, acquiring a mutant Ras polypeptide having introduced therein such mutation, producing a co-crystal of the mutant Ras polypeptide and a GTP analog, and further subjecting the co-crystal to X-ray crystallographic analysis to acquire structural information about the conformation including information about the structure surrounding the pocket.


Patent
Northeastern University, Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute and Gunma University | Date: 2014-08-18

The present application relates to methods of determining a concentration of an element, such as lithium, using analysis of a Compton scattering spectrums lineshape.


News Article | January 25, 2016
Site: phys.org

A collaboration of scientists from the RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Osaka University, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute have published research clarifying the role of magnetism in a new type of high-temperature superconductor. The research, just published as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review B, gives us a better understanding of the atomic-scale behavior of these materials. Physicists hope that, by understanding how these materials superconduct at relatively high temperature, they can eventually learn enough to make materials that superconduct close to room temperature. It is known that the phenomenon of superconductivity—where materials conduct electricity without resistance—arises when pairs of electrons become coupled together or "paired". With traditional superconductors, this pairing arises due to vibrations of the ions in the structure. But this is not always the case: there are other types of materials, such as cuprate superconductors and a relatively new class of superconductor iron-pnictide superconductors, that was discovered by a group led by Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, where magnetism may be the paring mechanism. According to Alfred Baron, the leader of the Materials Dynamics Lab at RIKEN SPring-8 Center, "The question we addressed was how the atomic vibrations in the iron pnictides are affected by magnetism. This was especially interesting because atomic vibrations are understood to be driving force of the older type of low-temperature superconductors, while magnetism is considered to be the probable driving mechanism of the new, high-temperature, superconductivity. Thus, it was in some sense, an overlap of the old with the new." Using a technique called inelastic x-ray scattering on two beamlines of the powerful SPring-8 synchrotron facility in Harima, Japan, the group was able to measure the dynamics in specially prepared single-domain samples. Comparing their measurements to calculations then suggested that magnetic fluctuations play an important role in the atomic vibrations. Naoki Murai, the graduate student spearheading the measurement explains, "By very gently pressing the material in the correct direction we were able to observe effects due to the onset of magnetic order". Says Baron, "One of the nice things about this work is that it provides a basis for describing atomic vibrations in this whole class of materials—do calculations with magnetism and then add fluctuations". Baron says the collaboration will continue to investigate the properties of these fascinating materials, and also, more generally, the interaction of magnetism and atomic vibrations. More information: N. Murai et al., Effect of magnetism on lattice dynamics in SrFe2As2 using high-resolution inelastic x-ray scattering, Physical Review B 93, 020301(R) (2016), DOI: 10.1103/PhysRevB.93.020301


News Article | January 26, 2016
Site: www.nanotech-now.com

Home > Press > Clarifying the role of magnetism in high-temperature superconductors Abstract: A collaboration of scientists from the RIKEN SPring-8 Center, Osaka University, the Japan Atomic Energy Agency, and the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute have published research clarifying the role of magnetism in a new type of high-temperature superconductor. The research, just published as a Rapid Communication in Physical Review B, gives us a better understanding of the atomic-scale behavior of these materials. Physicists hope that, by understanding how these materials superconduct at relatively high temperature, they can eventually learn enough to make materials that superconduct close to room temperature. It is known that the phenomenon of superconductivity -- where materials conduct electricity without resistance -- arises when pairs of electrons become coupled together or "paired". With traditional superconductors, this pairing arises due to vibrations of the ions in the structure. But this is not always the case: there are other types of materials, such as cuprate superconductors and a relatively new class of superconductor iron-pnictide superconductors, that was discovered by a group led by Hideo Hosono at the Tokyo Institute of Technology, where magnetism may be the paring mechanism. According to Alfred Baron, the leader of the Materials Dynamics Lab at RIKEN SPring-8 Center, "The question we addressed was how the atomic vibrations in the iron pnictides are affected by magnetism. This was especially interesting because atomic vibrations are understood to be driving force of the older type of low-temperature superconductors, while magnetism is considered to be the probable driving mechanism of the new, high-temperature, superconductivity. Thus, it was in some sense, an overlap of the old with the new." Using a technique called inelastic x-ray scattering on two beamlines of the powerful SPring-8 synchrotron facility in Harima, Japan, the group was able to measure the dynamics in specially prepared single-domain samples. Comparing their measurements to calculations then suggested that magnetic fluctuations play an important role in the atomic vibrations. Naoki Murai, the graduate student spearheading the measurement explains, "By very gently pressing the material in the correct direction we were able to observe effects due to the onset of magnetic order". Says Baron, "One of the nice things about this work is that it provides a basis for describing atomic vibrations in this whole class of materials--do calculations with magnetism and then add fluctuations". Baron says the collaboration will continue to investigate the properties of these fascinating materials, and also, more generally, the interaction of magnetism and atomic vibrations. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.


Home > Press > Unraveling the crystal structure of a -70° Celsius superconductor, a world first: Significant advancement in the realization of room-temperature superconductors Abstract: For the first time in the world, a research group led by Osaka University, Japan, clarified the crystal structure of hydrogen sulfide in its superconducting phase at the high temperature of -70°C. This was achieved by conducting a combination of experiments at one of the world's largest synchrotron radiation facilities, SPring-8 in Japan. These results mark a huge step towards developing room-temperature superconductors, which may provide promising solutions to energy problems. Superconductivity is a phenomenon that occurs when the electrical resistance of materials reaches zero as they are cooled down to a certain temperature. While the possible scenarios for its use are manifold, such as using superconductors as energy transmission lines without energy loss, widespread use is difficult as costs for cooling are high. Last year, hydrogen sulfide set a new record for highest superconducting transition temperature under high pressure. However, its crystal structure, necessary for understanding its superconductivity mechanism, was not understood. A research group led by Prof. Katsuya Shimizu and Dr. Mari Einaga at the Center for Science and Technology Under Extreme Conditions, Graduate School of Engineering Science, Osaka University, together with Dr. Mikhail Eremets at the Max Planck Institute for Chemistry, and Dr. Yasuo Ohishi at the Japan Synchrotron Radiation Research Institute, has now succeeded in clarifying this structure by simultaneously conducting measurements of high pressure electrical resistance and X-ray diffraction. Since hydrogen sulfide consists of light elements, measurements required a special setup. Therefore, these measurements were conducted at the synchrotron radiation facility SPring-8, and consisted of using a diamond anvil cell to conduct measurement under high-pressure and low temperature, and the high-pressure beam line BL10XU with which high-intensity, high-energy and micro-diameter X-ray beams for X-ray diffraction can be used, in order to examine the material's crystal structure. The researchers clarified that under high pressure, H2S molecules underwent a structural change to H3S and that this H3S structure exhibited superconductivity. Furthermore, from simultaneously measuring changes in pressure of superconducting transition temperature, they discovered that H3S displayed two superconducting phases: one with a cubic structure, the other with a hexagonal structure. They thereby managed to prove previous predictions from theoretical calculations. The results of this study will contribute to clarifying the mechanisms of the high-temperature superconductivity observed in hydrogen sulfide. They also mark a considerable step in developing room-temperature superconductors and provide new insights that will be useful in the development of new materials that spread under high pressure. For more information, please click If you have a comment, please us. Issuers of news releases, not 7th Wave, Inc. or Nanotechnology Now, are solely responsible for the accuracy of the content.

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