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Ogiso M.,Japan Food Research Laboratories | Morita T.,Japan Grain Inspection Association | Harada C.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association | Isagawa S.,Japan Food Research Laboratories | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2013

We examined whether immunochemical-based test kits designed for quantitative analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) screening in grain crops are applicable to corn processing by-products. Commercially available test kits (two types of immunochromatographic kits and three types of ELISA kits) were used to assay three types of corn processing by-products and mixed feed. The results obtained with some kits were significantly different from those of LC-MS analysis. Since the differences might be caused by insufficient extraction of DON from samples, the extraction time of all kits was set to be 20 minutes, based on a study of the dependence of the amount of DON extracted on the shaking time. Moreover, the extract of corn processing by-products was acidic, resulting in inhibition of the antigen-antibody reaction, so neutralization and centrifugation processes were introduced to prevent denaturation of antibody. After these modifications, the recovery for all kits in assays of corn gluten meal was within the range of 80-120%, and all kits showed acceptable accuracy. The relative standard deviation (RSD) of repeatability tests for all kits was less than 11.3% for analyses of both corn processing by-products and mixed feeds, indicating good precision. The above results showed that the kits studied were applicable to the quantitative assay of DON in corn processing by-products and mixed feed after modifications as described in this paper. Source


Shimada N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Yoshioka M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Mikami O.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Tanimura N.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 4 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2013

Lolitrem B, a causative toxin for ryegrass staggers, is produced by Neotyphodium lolii infecting perennial ryegrass (Lolium perenne). Japanese black cattle have been suspected to be more sensitive to lolitrem B than to other strains, and there has been a concern about the public health hazard of eating beef contaminated with lolitrem B. We carried out a feeding experiment to examine the sensitivity of Japanese black cattle to lolitrem B and the residual level of lolitrem B in several animal tissues. Japanese black steers were fed a 0, 500, 750, 1000, 1500 or 2000 μg kg-1 diet of lolitrem B provided by endophyte-infected perennial ryegrass straw for 12 weeks. All six animals in the 2000 μg kg-1 diet group exhibited ryegrass staggers symptoms. Furthermore, two out of three animals in the 1500 μg kg-1 diet group, three out of six animals in the 1000 μg kg-1 diet group and one out of three animals in the 750 μg kg-1 diet group presented clinical signs of ryegrass staggers. These results suggest that a daily intake of 18 μg kg-1 body weight of lolitrem B can produce ryegrass staggers in Japanese black steers. Perirenal fat tissues of the steers from those groups having one or more animals exhibiting ryegrass staggers symptoms contained approximately 150 ng g-1 of lolitrem B, while only small amounts of lolitrem B were detected in muscle, liver and kidney. Because the residual amount of lolitrem B in tissues of Japanese black cattle is small, the exposure to lolitrem B in consumers of the beef is likely to be low. © 2013 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC. Source


Yoshinari T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Tanaka T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Ishikuro E.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association | Horie M.,Otsuma Womens University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2013

To validate an LC-MS/MS method using a strong anion exchange cartridge for simultaneous determination of fumonisin B1 B2 and B 3 in corn, an inter-laboratory study was performed in 9 laboratories using one fumonisin-negative corn sample, three spiked corn samples (FB 1: 100-1, 000 μg/kg, FB2 and FB3: 10-100 μg/kg) and two naturally contaminated corn samples. The recoveries were in the ranges of 79.7-87.2% for FB1 78.6-103.2% for FB2 and 80.1-92.8% for FB3. The relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 3.7 to 8.0% for FB1, from 2.6 to 15.3% for FB2 and from 4.3 to 9.7% for FB3. The relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSDR) for FB2, FB2 and FB3 were in the ranges of 6.3-10.1%, 5.9-18.7% and 9.3-16.0%, respectively. The HorRat values for all analytes ranged from 0.2 to 0.9. The difference of the trueness between the two kinds of commercially available anion exchange cartridges used in this study was not significant (p> 0.05). Surveillance for fumonisins in corn grits was performed using the validated method. All of the samples were contaminated with fumonisins and the mean concentrations for FB1; FB2 and FB3 were 118.1, 37.3 and 17.9 μg/kg, respectively. These results indicated that the method for simultaneous determination of FB1 FB2 and FB3 in corn was successfully developed and validated. Source


Yoshinari T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Tanaka T.,Kobe Institute of Health | Ishikuro E.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association | Horie M.,Otsuma Womens University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2013

To validate an LC-MS/MS method for simultaneous determination of deoxynivalenol (DON) and its acetylated derivatives, 3-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (3ADON) and 15-acetyl-deoxynivalenol (15ADON), in wheat using a multifunctional column, an inter-laboratory study was performed in 9 laboratories using one blank wheat sample, three spiked wheat samples (10, 50, 150 ug/kg) and one naturally contaminated wheat sample. The recoveries ranged from 98.8 to 102.6% for DON, 89.3 to 98.7% for 3ADON, and from 84.9 to 90.0% for 15ADON. The relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) and reproducibility (RSDr) of DON were in the ranges of 7.2-11.3% and 9.5-22.6%, respectively. For 3ADON, the RSDr ranged from 5.3 to 9.5% and the RSDr ranged from 16.1 to 18.0%, while for 15ADON, the RSDr ranged from 6.2 to 11.2% and the RSDr ranged from 17.0 to 27.2%. The HorRat values for the three analytes ranged from 0.4 to 1.2. These results validate this method for the simultaneous determination of DON and its acetylated derivatives, 3ADON and 15ADON. Source


Yonemochi C.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association | Suga K.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association | Harada C.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association | Hanazumi M.,Japan Scientific Feeds Association
Animal Science Journal | Year: 2010

This study examined the influence of transgenic event CBH (StarLink™; SL)-derived hybrid corn on growth, health and physiological functions of pigs, as well as the possibility of transferring the cry9C gene or Cry9C protein to the blood, liver or muscles, in comparison with pigs fed a diet with non-transgenic (isogenic) corn (non-SL). The diet for the SL group was composed of 70% SL corn, and the diet for the non-SL group was composed of 70% non-SL corn. Forty pigs approximately 3 months in age were used in the current experiment. After the pigs were acclimatized to their environment for 7 days, they were fed piglet diets for 7 weeks, and afterwards fed growing-finishing diets until the end of the experiment. There were no significant differences in bodyweight gain, feed intake or feed conversion ratio between the pigs fed SL diet and those of non-SL diet. No abnormalities were observed in the health conditions of either the SL or the non-SL group. Moreover, no significant differences were observed between the two groups in hematological values, histopathological examination and necropsy findings. Although the serum biochemical values within each group were normal, the blood urea nitrogen values of the SL group showed a tendency to be slightly higher than those of the non-SL group. Also, the blood glucose values of the SL group were significantly lower than those of the non-SL group. However, the cause of the significant differences in the blood glucose values between the two groups is unknown. The PCR and ELISA did not detect the cry9C gene and Cry9C protein in the blood, liver or muscles of the pigs at the end of the experiment. © 2009 The Authors. Journal compilation © 2009 Japanese Society of Animal Science. Source

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