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Yasokawa D.,Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center | Murata S.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Iwahashi Y.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Kitagawa E.,Applied Science Business Unit | And 3 more authors.
Applied Biochemistry and Biotechnology | Year: 2010

To assess the toxicity of the C1 compounds methanol and formaldehyde, gene expression profiles of treated baker's yeast were analyzed using DNA microarrays. Among approximately 6,000 open reading frames (ORFs), 314 were repressed and 375 were induced in response to methanol. The gene process category "energy" comprised the greatest number of induced genes while "protein synthesis" comprised the greatest number of repressed genes. Products of genes induced by methanol were mainly integral membrane proteins or were localized to the plasma membrane. A total of 622 and 610 ORFs were induced or repressed by formaldehyde, respectively. More than one-third of the genes found to be strongly repressed by formaldehyde belonged to the "protein synthesis" functional category. Conversely, genes in the subcategory of "nitrogen, sulfur, and selenium metabolism" within "metabolism" and in the category of "cell rescue, defense, and virulence" were up-regulated by exposure to formaldehyde. Our data suggest that membrane structure is a major target of methanol toxicity, while proteins were major targets of formaldehyde toxicity. © 2009 Humana Press.


Yasokawa D.,Hokkaido Food Processing Research Center | Murata S.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | Iwahashi Y.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Kitagawa E.,Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
Journal of Bioscience and Bioengineering | Year: 2010

Zinc pyrithione has been used in anti-dandruff shampoos and in anti-fouling paint on ships. However, little is known of its mode of action. We characterized the effects of sub-lethal concentrations of zinc pyrithione (Zpt) on Saccharomyces cerevisiae using DNA microarrays. The majority of the strongly upregulated genes are related to iron transport, and many of the strongly downregulated genes are related to the biosynthesis of cytochrome (heme). These data suggest that Zpt induces severe iron starvation. To confirm the DNA microarray data, we supplemented cultures containing Zpt with iron, and the growth of the yeast was restored significantly. From these results, we propose that the principal toxicity of zinc pyrithione arises from iron starvation. © 2009 The Society for Biotechnology, Japan.


Yu X.,University of Tsukuba | Yu X.,RIKEN | Kikuchi A.,University of Tsukuba | Matsunaga E.,Nippon Paper Industries Co. | And 3 more authors.
Plant Biotechnology | Year: 2013

Transgenic woody plants have been rapidly developed in recent years, and the commercial use of these transgenic plants has been recognized as an important approach to solving environmental and food problems. Concomitantly, the potential impact of transgenic woody plants on peripheral ecosystems should be considered before they are released for practical commercial use. In this study, we have used environmental biosafety assessments to evaluate three lines of transgenic Eucalyptus globulus that harbor the choline oxidase (codA) gene and have previously been proven to have different levels of salt tolerance. The assessments included two allelopathy bioassays and a survey on rhizosphere microbes, which have shown practicability in other transgenic plants. The two allelopathy bioassays were used for evaluating the potential impact of the transformants on the surrounding vegetation. The survey on rhizosphere microbes was performed to investigate the potential impact of transformants on the rhizosphere microbe community. The results indicated there was no significant difference between the transformants and non-transformants with respect to the impact on the surrounding vegetation and the rhizosphere microbe community. A combination of our biological evaluation of E. globulus was then used to successfully obtain approval for the plantation of transgenic E. globulus in a Type I field trial in Tsukuba. © 2013 The Japanese Society for Plant Cell and Molecular Biology.


Inui R.,Kyushu University | Nishida T.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Onikura N.,Kyushu University
Ecology and Civil Engineering | Year: 2012

The objective of this study is to understand the characteristics of fish assemblages in the boat slips of two fishing ports. We obtained fish samples from 39 sites, including two fishing ports on the 150-km coastline of northwestern Kyushu, Japan. Cluster analyses and nonparametric multiple comparison reveal that the boat slips contain many species of immature fish in large numbers. In contrast, they contain adult fish of far fewer species in smaller numbers. Therefore, we conclude that the boat slips potentially serve an ecological function as nursery grounds for immature fish. On the other hand, they may be unsuitable for sustaining adult fish.


Kaneko R.,University of Tsukuba | Kaneko R.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Ohkubo K.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Nakagawa-Izumi A.,University of Tsukuba | Doi S.,University of Tsukuba
Environmental Technology | Year: 2012

Paper sludge is a by-product of the pulping process and is landfilled or incinerated for disposal. In this study, we evaluated ingestion and digestibility of carbohydrates, by the termite Coptotermes formosanus, in two kinds of sludges: sludge C from the chemical pulp mill and sludge M from the mechanical pulp mill. The no-choice tests using the termite for three weeks showed that the mass loss of sludge C was significantly higher than that of the control samples: a bleached pulp and red pine wood. It is considered that the higher inorganic content of sludge C resulted in the higher mass loss when the same amount of carbohydrates was taken by the pulp-or wood-fed termite. Although the inorganic content of sludge M was almost the same as that of sludge C, the higher lignin content in sludge M is thought to have resulted in the lower mass loss. Analysis of sugar composition in the faecal materials of the termite showed that about 73% of glucose and 81% of xylose in sludge C were digested. It was concluded that the digestibility of these sugars in sludge C was the same as that of the control samples despite containing high amounts of inorganic compounds. However, the hydrogen conversion rate by the termites that were fed sludge was lower than that of the termites that were fed pulp in the no-choice test for three days: one mole of glucose from the sludge and pulp was converted to 0.51 and 0.80 moles of hydrogen, respectively. © 2012 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.


Kaneko R.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Kaneko R.,University of Tsukuba | Nakagawa-Izumi A.,University of Tsukuba | Kajiyama M.,University of Tsukuba | Doi S.,University of Tsukuba
Sociobiology | Year: 2011

The effects of4 aromatic monomers on the rate of hydrogen emission from the termite Coptotermes formosanus were studied. The hydrogen emission rate, based on the mass of intake, from the termites that were fed cellulose immersed with vanillin, was higher than that of the termites that were fed only cellulose. The PCR-DGGE band patterns, indicating the diversity of the bacterial flora obtained from the guts ofthe termites fed cellulose with aromatic monomers were different from that ofthe control termites, indicating that the intestinal bacterial flora was affected by the monomers. To investigate the direct effects ofthe monomers on the bacterial flora, the hydrogen emission rate was determined by analyzing the headspace gas in a glass vial in which the excised termite guts, with the intestinal contents after feeding with cellulose, were incubated in the mineral solution containing vanillin as a monomer sample. The results showed that the addition of vanillin at the lower concentration (10 ppm) enhanced hydrogen emission; however, no effect was observed at the higher concentration (100 ppm). The same effect was observed following the addition of 3,4-dimethoxybenzaldehyde. It was concluded that a low concentration of some aromatic monomers derived from lignin affects the bacterial flora in the gut ofthe termite in a way that changes the hydrogen emission rate from the termite.


Konno H.,Nippon Paper Industries Co. | Goto H.,Nippon Paper Industries Co. | Takahashi K.,Nippon Paper Chemicals Co. | Nanri Y.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc.
Appita Annual Conference | Year: 2010

Precipitated calcium carbonate is produced as a by-product in the causticizing process of the kraft pulping process. Nippon Paper Industries, co.,ltd has used this Calcium Carbonate by the Causticizing process (CCC) as filler and coating pigment since nearly 30 years ago. By using this CCC as filler and coating pigment in a paper, lime kiln operation can be reduced or eliminated, resulting in the reduction of fuel consumption in the lime kiln operation. Furthermore, the build-up of non-process elements in the lime cycle, which is one of major concerns in the chemical recovery process, can be avoided because lime mud is taken out from the lime cycle with producing CCC. On the other hands, our company has developed the morphology control technology of CCC. Initially, the precipitation of aragonite CCC was investigated at a laboratory scale. Then, the scale up trial was carried out at a pilot and a mill scale plant. Based on these fundamental research and developments, the industrial process to manufacture aragonite CCC with batch process has been established. Subsequently, the morphology control technology with continuous process was investigated at a laboratory scale and the results indicated that there was the possibility to produce aragonite CCC in the continuous operation.


Inui R.,Kyushu University | Nishida T.,Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc. | Onikura N.,Kyushu University | Eguchi K.,Saga Prefectural Fisheries Research and Development Center | And 3 more authors.
Estuarine, Coastal and Shelf Science | Year: 2010

We aim to understand the relationships between physical conditions and characteristics of the immature-fish community in surf zones of sandy beaches. Therefore, we obtained fish samples between March 2007 and February 2008 and analyzed certain physical conditions in the surf zones of 21 sandy beaches on the coastline of the northwestern Kyushu Island, Japan. We collected a total of 83 species and 6458 immature individuals. In a BIO-ENV analysis, the highest correlation was observed between fish assemblage and S20 (i.e., the slope from the shoreline to the sites where the depth was 20 m) and current velocity (CV) values. Stepwise multiple linear regression analyses revealed that the number of species and individuals decrease with an increase in the S20 and CV values. These results show that species richness and the abundance of immature-fish increase under shelving and calm conditions. Thus, immature-fish assemblages are strongly influenced by the prevailing physical conditions. Moreover, in six of the 10 dominant species, a negative correlation was observed between CV and abundance. On the other hand, S20 was found to be the explanatory variable only in the case of the most dominant species, i.e., Gymnogobius breunigii. Furthermore, a positive correlation was observed between S1 (i.e., the slope from the shoreline to the sites where the depth was 1.0 m at the mean tidal level) and median particle size (i.e., MPS of the sediments) and the abundances of Sillago japonica and Favonigobius gymnauchen, respectively, and a negative correlation with salinity, in the case of Acanthogobius lactipes. We conclude that the characteristics of the fish community in surf zones on sandy beaches are determined by not only the shelving and calm conditions, which influence fish assemblages and abundances, but also the habitat diversity, which influences the diversity of fish species. © 2009 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


PubMed | Japan Pulp and Paper Research Institute Inc.
Type: Journal Article | Journal: Environmental toxicology | Year: 2015

Here, we used physiological and transcriptomic analyses to evaluate the effects of 17-trenbolone (TB) on metabolism during the early life stage of medaka (Oryzias latipes). In the physiological experiments, sex reversal rates increased continuously in proportion to TB concentrations (2-100 ng/L), and were 100% (all males) in the 200 ng/L treatment group. TB caused a significant increase in the gonadosomatic index of females at concentrations of 60 and 100 ng/L. These females exhibited swollen abdomens and decreased egg production and fertility. Significant increases were observed in the body mass index of these females. TB caused decreased fertility in males at concentrations >20 ng/L, but no other effects were observed. In the transcriptomic (microarray) experiments, larvae were exposed to TB for up to 7 d. Analyses using the KEGG Orthology Database revealed that predominant categories of significantly upregulated genes included lipid metabolism and metabolism of terpenoids and polyketides. Thirteen genes (including those for hydroxymethylglutaryl-CoA synthase, cytoplasmic synthase, and lanosterol synthase) related to cholesterol biosynthesis via the mevalonate pathway were highlighted in these categories. Reverse transcriptase-polymerase chain reaction analyses were consistent with the microarray results, in terms of the direction and magnitude of change to gene expression. Among the downregulated genes, angiopoietin-like 4 and mitochondrial uncoupling protein 1, which are inversely correlated with obesity, were detected in the TB treatments. In conclusion, the results suggest that the exposure of females to TB during the early life stage may cause metabolic dysfunctions, including obesity and disrupted cholesterol synthesis. 2015 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Environ Toxicol 31: 1539-1551, 2016.

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