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Shinjuku, Japan

Kajino M.,Tokyo University of Science | Kajino M.,Japan Meteorological Agency | Ueda H.,Toyohashi Institute of Technology | Sato K.,Asia Center for Air Pollution Research | Sakurai T.,Japan NUS Co.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics

The spatial distribution of the source-receptor relationship (SRR) of sulfur over Northeast Asia was examined using a chemical transport model (RAQM) off-line coupled with a meteorological model (MM5). The simulation was conducted for the entire year of 2002. The results were evaluated using monitoring data for six remote stations of the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The modeled SO2 and O3 concentrations agreed well with the observations quantitatively. The modeled aerosol and wet deposition fluxes of SO42− were underestimated by 30 % and 50 %, respectively. The domain was divided into 5 source-receptor regions: (I) North China; (II) Central China; (III) South China; (IV) South Korea; and (V) Japan. The sulfur deposition in each receptor region amounted to about 50ĝ€"75 % of the emissions from the same region. The largest contribution to the deposition in each region was originated from the same region, accounting for 53ĝ€"84 %. The second largest contribution was due to Region II, supplying 14ĝ€"43 %. The spatial distributions of the SRRs revealed that subregional values varied by about two times more than regional averages due to nonuniformity across the deposition fields. Examining the spatial distributions of the deposition fields was important for identifying subregional areas where the deposition was highest within a receptor region. The horizontal distribution changed substantially according to season. © 2011 Author(s). Source

Tanaka S.,Tokai University | Kitamura T.,Japan NUS Co. | Mochizuki T.,Ibaraki Prefectural Oarai Aquarium | Kofuji K.,Ibaraki Prefectural Oarai Aquarium
Marine and Freshwater Research

The white shark, a top predator inhabiting the world's oceans, is an endangered species. However, knowledge of its life-history traits and population structure is still limited. We hypothesised that life-history traits would vary among populations because the species' various habitats are diverse and change through time. Age was estimated by counting growth bands in the centra of white sharks caught in Japan. The von Bertalanffy growth parameters were estimated at L∞=455cm TL, k=0.196 year-1 and t0=1.92 years for males and L∞=607cm TL, k=0.159 year-1 and t0=-1.80 years for females. The growth rate to maturity was higher than that known for individuals from California and South Africa. Male sharks matured at 310cm TL at 4 years of age and females began to mature at ∼450cm TL and 7 years. The D-loop-region sequences of mitochondrial DNA extracted from Japanese white sharks and GenBank datasets from sharks of California, Australia, New Zealand and South Africa indicate that Japanese white sharks form a monophyletic clade separate from the populations of other regions. The results suggest that unique life-history traits of Japanese white sharks may be caused by genetic differences. © CSIRO 2011. Source

Takahashi K.,Kyoto University | Nansai K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Tohno S.,Kyoto University | Nishizawa M.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | And 3 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment

This study determined the production-based emissions, the consumption-based emissions, and the consumption-based health impact of primary carbonaceous aerosols (black carbon: BC, organic carbon: OC) in nine countries and regions in Asia (Indonesia, Malaysia, the Philippines, Singapore, Thailand, China, Taiwan, South Korea, and Japan) in 2008. For the production-based emissions, sectoral emissions inventory of BC and OC for the year of 2008 based on the Asian international input-output tables (AIIOT) was compiled including direct emissions from households. Then, a multiregional environmental input-output analysis with the 2008 AIIOT which was originally developed by updating the table of 2000 was applied for calculating the consumption-based emissions for each country and region. For the production-based emissions, China had the highest BC and OC emissions of 4520Gg-C in total, which accounted for 75% of the total emissions in the nine countries and regions. For consumption-based emissions, China was estimated to have had a total of 4849Gg-C of BC and OC emissions, which accounted for 77% of the total emissions in the Asia studied. We also quantified how much countries and regions induced emissions in other countries and regions. Furthermore, taking account of the source-receptor relationships of BC and OC among the countries and regions, we converted their consumption-based emissions into the consumption-based health impact of each country and region. China showed the highest consumption-based health impact of BC and OC totaling 111×103 premature deaths, followed by Indonesia, Japan, Thailand and South Korea. China accounted for 87% of the sum total of the consumption-based health impacts of the countries/regions, indicating that China's contribution to consumption-based health impact in Asia was greater than its consumption-based emissions. By elucidating the health impacts that each country and region had on other countries and from which country the impacts were received, we demonstrated that the characteristics of the consumption-based health impact varied significantly by country and region. We also determined the difference in the health impacts to other countries and regions due to the domestic final demand of each country and region, and the health impact due to the domestic final demand of that country or region. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Yanagimoto T.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries Science | Kitamura T.,Japan NUS Co. | Kobayashi T.,Japan National Research Institute of Fisheries Science
Marine Genomics

Walleye pollock, Theragra chalocogramma, is one of the most important species in the North Pacific and Bering Sea ecosystems. However genetic population structuring of walleye pollock is uncertain. In the present study, genetic variation of walleye pollock collected in several spawning areas ranging from the Japan Sea to the Gulf of Alaska was investigated by DNA analysis. Three regions of the spacer control region, the ND5 and ND6 region (ND complex), and the ND1 and 16S rRNA region (rDNA complex) were amplified using the polymerase chain reaction (PCR). Restriction fragment length polymorphism (RFLP) was conducted on these PCR products and composite haplotypes were calculated. Furthermore, several nuclear DNA regions (actin, Calmodulin, S7 ribosomal protein, creatin kinase, and SypI gene) were investigated to study the stock structure of walleye pollock. It was considered that Calmodulin gene was one of good genetic marker, therefore we conducted SNP analysis for Calmodulin gene by SnaPshot kits. In RFLP analyses, there were no area-specific fragment patterns in the three regions, control region, ND complex and rDNA complex of mtDNA. However compositions of the fragment patterns for the three digested sets, control region/HinfI, rDNA complex/MspI and ND complex/MspI indicated that there are significant differences between around the Japan (Sado-Funka Bay-Wakkanai-Rausu) and the Bering Sea (Western Bering Sea-Nabarin-Atka I.-Bogoslof I). Furthermore, in the case of haplotype frequency, composition showed also significant genetic difference between two areas. Moreover, in Calmodulin analyses, haplotype compositions were changing from western area to eastern area gradually and the results of AMOVA analysis showed that there are interesting differences between western Pacific, western Bering Sea, and eastern Bering Sea. Judging from these results, it was considered that there are three populations of walleye pollock in the Northern Ocean. However, area-specific pattern was not found in some populations in the Northern Ocean. Therefore, we suggested that these populations were related by weak gene flow, and the walleye pollock was formed with meta-population around the Japan and the Bering Sea. © 2012 Elsevier B.V. Source

Japan Nus Co. and Terrara Code Research Institute Inc | Date: 2010-09-24

Disclosed is an RFID tag that is provided with a laminate forming a layered structure; an antenna disposed with respect to the laminate so as to enable external communication; and an RFID circuit electrically connected to the antenna. The laminate has a shielding member for shielding from radiation, and the RFID circuit is arranged in the laminate so as to be covered by the shielding member.

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