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Suzuki T.,Japan National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster
Science and Technology of Energetic Materials | Year: 2014

Dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine, which was introduced in 1947, is a widely used chemical blowing agent in the rubber industry. One of important characteristics of dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine is that the decomposition proceeds by an exothermic reaction at relatively low temperature especially in contact with acidic materials. Dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine has been reported as being responsible for fire or explosion accidents. For example, a local newspaper in Dhaka in Bangladesh reported that a fire had occurred in a building in downtown and spread to neighboring buildings causing more than one hundred fatalities on 3 June 2010 and that dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine stored in the building had been one of the major causes of the spread of the fire. The thermal decomposition of dinitrosopentamethylenetetramine has been investigated for nearly half a century by a lot of researchers with many methods such as thermal analytical methods or sensitivity testing methods. The results of those investigations on decomposition, ignition, case histories of fire and explosion accidents, and safety measures are reviewed. Source


Koseki H.,Japan National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster
Energy and Fuels | Year: 2012

Recently proposed various solid biomass fuels are reviewed from a safety aspect, especially concerning the hazard of spontaneous ignition. Various types of biomass materials are proposed for use as fuel, such as RDF (refuse derived fuel) and wood chips. These fuels have high energy and potential to cause fires, explosions, or other incidents. Japan experienced many incidents with biomass materials, such as wood chips, coal-wood mixture, and organic rubble produced from destroyed houses by the great earthquake and tsunami in March 2011, in Japan. Organic rubble includes various organic materials and sometimes causes fire, and it may be able to be used for fuel of power plants. However, it is very difficult to extinguish fires of biomass fuel piles in storage facilities. Here, current studies on heat generation for these materials and a proposed evaluation test method for these new developing materials in Japan are introduced, which is to use high sensitivity calorimeters such as C80, or TAM, and gas emission test. Additionally, cause investigation work for post-earthquake fires by organic rubble, conducted by the author, is introduced. High sensitivity calorimeters can detect small heat generation between room temperature and 80 °C, due to fermentation or other causes. This heat generation sometimes initiated a real fire and produced some combustible gas, which may explode if fuel is stored inside silo or other indoor storage. © 2012 American Chemical Society. Source


Hatayama K.,Japan National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster
American Society of Mechanical Engineers, Pressure Vessels and Piping Division (Publication) PVP | Year: 2015

The Mw 9.0 2011 Tohoku, Japan earthquake tsunami damaged 418 oil storage tanks located along the Pacific coast of the Hokkaido, Tohoku, and Kanto Districts of Japan. A wide variety of damage was observed, including movement and deformation of the tank body, scouring of the tank base and ground, and movement or structural fracture of the pipe. In total, 157 of the 418 tanks were moved by the tsunami. By comparing the severity of damage with the inundation depth of the tsunami experienced by the oil storage tank, a fragility curve projecting the damage rate for plumbing is presented, and a rough but easy-to-use method of predicting tsunami damage to an oil storage tank from a given inundation depth is also presented: (i) for inundation depths of 2-5 m, tanks suffer damage to their plumbing, and small tanks (capacity < 100 m3) and empty larger tanks may be moved; (ii) for inundation depths of greater than 5 m, most tanks are moved. The validity of the previously-proposed tsunami tank-movement prediction method is first examined. A comparison of the method's predictions with the actual damage data from the 2011 Tohoku earthquake tsunami indicates a high hit rate of 76%. Copyright © 2015 by ASME. Source


Koseki H.,Japan National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster
Energies | Year: 2011

Various recently proposed biomass fuels are reviewed from the point of view of their safety. Many biomass materials are proposed for use as fuels, such as refuse derived fuel (RDF), wood chips, coal-wood mixtures, etc. However, these fuels have high energy potentials and can cause fires and explosions. We have experienced many such incidents. It is very difficult to extinguish fires in huge piles of biomass fuel or storage facilities. Here current studies on heat generation for these materials and proposed evaluation methods for these new developing materials in Japan are introduced, which are consistent with measurements using highly sensitive calorimeters such as C80, or TAM, and gas emission tests. The highly sensitive calorimeters can detect small heat generation between room temperature and 80 °C, due to fermentation or other causes. This heat generation sometimes initiates real fires, and also produces combustible gases which can explode if fuel is stored in silos or indoor storage facilities. © 2011 by the authors. Source


Hasegawa K.,Japan National Research Institute of Fire and Disaster
Chemical Engineering Transactions | Year: 2016

The Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant, resulting from a massive earthquake, had the worst accident. Its causes are studied from safety culture and the inherent safety points of view. The matters that these fundamentals had not been embodied in the nuclear plants are as follows: priority of safety, seismic strengthening works, redundancy and diversity of subsystems, asymmetry failure mode; simplification and limitation of baneful effects on reactor cooling system, simplification of reactor building, attenuation and avoiding knock-on effect by miniaturizing reactor, tolerance toward leakage or melt-down at reactor pressure vessel, tolerance toward hydrogen gas generation, limitation of gas explosion effects, simplification of emergency countermeasures, and making status clear in emergencies. Therefore, the accident was triggered by the earthquake, but the escalation into an extremely significant accident was directly caused by a lack of safety principle and inherent safety designs. It must be more man-made than natural disaster. © Copyright 2016, AIDIC Servizi S.r.l. Source

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