Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences

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Patent
Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Date: 2017-02-01

Provided is a prediction device for skin change from radiation exposure, the device being capable of precisely predicting a skin reaction to radiation exposure. Also provided are a verification device, a program for the prediction device for skin change, and a program for the verification device. A prediction device (4) for skin change from radiation exposure includes: a radiation information accepting unit (11) that accepts input of radiation information regarding expected exposure to radiation; a pre-exposure skin image acquiring unit (21) that acquires a skin image that captures skin of a living body; a change computing unit that computes the change of the skin due to exposure to the radiation determined by the radiation information and that obtains from the skin image a post-change prediction skin image; and a prediction skin image outputting unit (25) that outputs the prediction skin image. The change calculating unit includes an expression form converting unit (22), an amount-of-change deciding unit (13), an image changing unit (23), and an expression form restoring unit (24).


Patent
Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Date: 2015-03-25

Provided is a prediction device for skin change from radiation exposure, the device being capable of precisely predicting a skin reaction to radiation exposure. Also provided are a verification device, a program for the prediction device for skin change, and a program for the verification device. A prediction device (4) for skin change from radiation exposure includes: a radiation information accepting unit (11) that accepts input of radiation information regarding expected exposure to radiation; a pre-exposure skin image acquiring unit (21) that acquires a skin image that captures skin of a living body; a change computing unit that computes the change of the skin due to exposure to the radiation determined by the radiation information and that obtains from the skin image a post-change prediction skin image; and a prediction skin image outputting unit (25) that outputs the prediction skin image. The change calculating unit includes an expression form converting unit (22), an amount-of-change deciding unit (13), an image changing unit (23), and an expression form restoring unit (24).


Grant
Agency: European Commission | Branch: FP7 | Program: CSA-SA | Phase: Fission-2012-6.0.1 | Award Amount: 1.45M | Year: 2013

The health effects of exposures to fallout from Soviet nuclear weapons testing among the residents living nearby the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site in Kazakhstan are not well investigated. There are reports with contradicting results coming from the studies conducted on two independent cohorts: historical and new. Both use different control groups and dosimetric methods. The two cohorts have a high probability of including the same individuals. There is a need to investigate possibilities to merge them in order to avoid duplication of efforts and resources for future studies of the health effects in these populations. The main objectives of our feasibility study include: developing and testing mechanisms for identification of cohort members in the two cohorts; identification and testing of data linkage mechanisms; determination of the outcomes that can be studied (cancer and non-cancer diseases); setting up and testing procedures for follow-up; identification of case ascertainment mechanisms and sources, depending on the outcome; characterization and validation of dose assessment methods used in the two cohorts; investigation of the feasibility to collect data on confounding factors; assessing the availability of biological samples and their potential use in the future. The project will bring together scientists from Europe, Kazakhstan and Japan with the aim of developing a proposal for a future prospective full scale epidemiological study to address the dose-effect relationship for both cancer and non-cancer effects from low to moderate chronic doses, if the feasibility is demonstrated. To achieve the overall objective it is proposed to set-up a consortium that have considerable experience in epidemiological studies on populations residing around the Semipalatinsk nuclear test site and/or who have been extensively involved in the low dose risk research. The group will include European and international scientists with expertise in epidemiology, dosimetry, radiation biology and clinical medicine. At the end of the project, a detailed report based on the results of the work conducted will be developed, critically reviewed by the External Advisory Board and recommendations for future research needs will be made, if feasible. Other populations exposed to low to moderate dose radiation like in Fukushima or elsewhere can benefit from the outcomes of studying the unique Semipalatinsk cohort and the results will contribute to a better understanding and quantification of radiation risks for low to moderate chronic doses. The proposed project is in line with the Strategic Research Agenda of MELODI.


Patent
Shimadzu Corporation, Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences and National Center For Geriatrics And Gerontology | Date: 2015-07-15

A suction drain device 5 of a disclosed liquid collecting apparatus 1 actively pushes and pulls blood. This achieves liquid collection at high speed even under decreased pressure depending on a physiological state of an animal. Moreover, the liquid collecting apparatus 1 includes a first flow path 2 and a second flow path 3 having a given length. Accordingly, the flow path with a given length set in advance and thus a known volume allows collection of a given amount volume of blood without measuring a length and an amount of blood using a volume measuring device. Accordingly, no need of the measuring device allows reduction in size of the liquid collecting apparatus 1. Consequently, the liquid collecting apparatus 1 can be installed adjacent to the animal to achieve reduction in dead volume. Moreover, blood is flown to a fourth flow path 23 branched with a connecting terminal 21, and is also flown to the second flow path 3 branched with a connecting terminal 6. The blood flown in the second flow path 3 is collected at the highest priority. This obtains collection of fresh blood from a collecting source as a blood supply source.


Patent
Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Shimadzu Corporation | Date: 2015-02-04

When an image for PET attenuation correction is generated from an MR image, the MR image captured by MRI is segmented into regions according to pixel values. In a region in which a radiation attenuation coefficient is considered to be uniform, a radiation attenuation correction value is determined by referring to an existing radiation attenuation correction value table. In a region including multiple tissues having different radiation attenuation coefficients, a radiation attenuation correction value is determined by referring to a standard image. In such a manner, an image for PET attenuation correction in which tissues having similar pixel values in the MR image but different attenuation coefficients for radiation can be distinguished and that can accommodate individual differences and an affected area such as a space occupying lesion (for example, a cancer, abscess, or the like) and an organic defect is generated.


Patent
Toshiba Corporation and Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Date: 2015-11-27

A medical image generation apparatus includes: a three-dimensional image acquisition unit that acquires a three-dimensional image in which a space including a patient is captured; an imparting unit that imparts, to each of voxels constituting the three-dimensional image, a living-body likelihood coefficient indicating a likelihood of being a living-body region of the patient; an updating unit that updates a luminance value of the voxel in which the imparted living-body likelihood coefficient shows a given value, through predetermined processing; a virtual viewpoint setting unit that sets a virtual viewpoint for transforming the three-dimensional image into a two-dimensional radiation image; and a radiation image generation unit that calculates a luminance value of a pixel constituting the radiation image based on the luminance value of the voxel existing along a line connecting each of the corresponding pixels and the virtual viewpoint.


Patent
Toshiba Corporation and Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Date: 2015-11-18

According to one embodiment, a medical image processing apparatus, includes: a first acquisition unit; a second acquisition unit; and a part-removed image generation unit, wherein the first acquisition unit is adapted to acquire a first radiograph that is a virtual radiograph generated to have a specified part or a predetermined part, among parts included in volume data indicative of a three-dimensional structure of an inside of a body of a patient, being emphasized, the second acquisition unit is adapted to acquire a second radiograph of the inside of the body of the patient, and the part-removed image generation unit is adapted to generate a part-removed image by removing the specified or predetermined part or parts other than the specified or predetermined part from the second radiograph with reference to the first radiograph.


Kokuryo D.,Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences
Nature Nanotechnology | Year: 2016

Engineered nanoparticles that respond to pathophysiological parameters, such as pH or redox potential, have been developed as contrast agents for the magnetic resonance imaging (MRI) of tumours. However, beyond anatomic assessment, contrast agents that can sense these pathological parameters and rapidly amplify their magnetic resonance signals are desirable because they could potentially be used to monitor the biological processes of tumours and improve cancer diagnosis. Here, we report an MRI contrast agent that rapidly amplifies magnetic resonance signals in response to pH. We confined Mn2+ within pH-sensitive calcium phosphate (CaP) nanoparticles comprising a poly(ethylene glycol) shell. At a low pH, such as in solid tumours, the CaP disintegrates and releases Mn2+ ions. Binding to proteins increases the relaxivity of Mn2+ and enhances the contrast. We show that these nanoparticles could rapidly and selectively brighten solid tumours, identify hypoxic regions within the tumour mass and detect invisible millimetre-sized metastatic tumours in the liver. © 2016 Nature Publishing Group


Patent
Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences and Maze Inc. | Date: 2015-03-04

A method is a method for determining whether a difference between a first reference sequence and first comparative sequences sharing homology with the first reference sequence is caused by a mutation of the first comparative sequence or caused by a read error in sequencing. The method includes generating second comparative sequences and a second reference sequence by substituting a sequence having a predetermined base number or more of consecutive same bases for a sequence having the predetermined base number of the consecutive same bases in the first comparative sequences and the first reference sequence (S103). The method further includes calculating an edit distance of the second comparative sequence with respect to the second reference sequence (S104), and determining whether the difference is caused by the mutation or caused by the read error based on the edit distance (S105).


Patent
Japan National Institute of Radiological Sciences | Date: 2015-03-18

A planning apparatus (70) determines irradiation parameter data (67) for a charged particle irradiation system (1), which radiates charged particles generated by an ion source (2) to a target (80) by accelerating the charged particles by means of a linear accelerator (4) and a synchrotron (5). The planning apparatus is provided with: a planning program (73), which determines the irradiation parameter data (67) with respect to one target (80) by combining charged particles of a plurality of kinds of ion species; and a CPU (71) for executing the planning program. Consequently, the irradiation planning apparatus capable of performing irradiation with desirable dose distribution with respect to the target, the irradiation planning program, an irradiation plan determining method, and the charged particle irradiation system are provided.

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