Japan National Institute of Health Sciences

Tokyo, Japan

Japan National Institute of Health Sciences

Tokyo, Japan
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Kuchta K.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases | Year: 2017

Background:Treatment failure of prostate cancer (PCa) is often due to bone metastasis. Celastrol, an active constituent of Tripterygium wilfordii roots, has shown anti-tumor effects in previous studies in accordance with its indication in traditional Chinese medicine.Methods:Using a PC-3 cell model, in vitro assays were performed to evaluate the effects of celastrol on proliferation, migration (wound healing assay), tissues invasion (Transwell–Matrigel penetration assay) and vascular endothelial growth factor (VEGF) secretion (enzyme-linked immunosorbent assay). An intra-tibia injection mouse model was used to assess the effect of celastrol on PCa bone metastasis in vivo.Results:Pretreatment with celastrol significantly reduced proliferation of PC-3 cells in a dose-dependent manner and cell migration was much slower than in controls. Significantly fewer cells penetrated the gel-membrane after celastrol administration and their skeletal invasive ability was significantly reduced in a dose-dependent manner. Correspondingly, a significant, dose-dependent decrease in VEGF secretion was observed. In the in vivo mouse model, pretreatment with celastrol (8 μmol l-1) inhibited the tumorigenicity of PC-3 cells so that almost no bone invasion occurred as compared with control injections. Histological examinations using hematoxylin and eosin staining showed that tibiae injected with celastrol pretreated PC-3 cells retained their natural bone structure.Conclusions:Celastrol may have preventive potential against PCa bone metastasis.Prostate Cancer and Prostatic Diseases advance online publication, 14 February 2017; doi:10.1038/pcan.2016.61. © 2017 Macmillan Publishers Limited, part of Springer Nature.

Suzuki H.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Toxicon | Year: 2016

The mouse bioassay for tetrodotoxin has been used for many years in Japan. To the best of our knowledge, however, there have only been a few reports that have specifically investigated differences in susceptibility to tetrodotoxin among mouse strains. In this study, we investigated the response of various mouse strains to tetrodotoxin. Tetrodotoxin solution was injected intraperitoneally into male mice of 5 inbred strains (A/J, BALB/c, C3H/He, C57BL/6, and DBA/2) and male and female mice of 2 non-inbred strains (ddY and ICR). Significant differences in susceptibility to tetrodotoxin were found among the mouse strains tested. In comparison to the ddY male mice, which are designated to be used in the Japanese reference method, the 5 inbred strains of mice tested were significantly more resistant to tetrodotoxin. However, no significant differences in tetrodotoxin susceptibility were observed between ddY male and female mice or between ddY male mice and ICR male and female mice. These results indicate that the users of the mouse bioassay should pay attention to differences in mouse strain in susceptibility to tetrodotoxin. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

Shigemoto-Mogami Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Hoshikawa K.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Goldman J.E.,Columbia University | Sekino Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Sato K.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Journal of Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Although microglia have long been considered as brain resident immune cells, increasing evidence suggests that they also have physiological roles in the development of the normal CNS. In this study, we found large numbers of activated microglia in the forebrain subventricular zone (SVZ) of the rat from P1 to P10. Pharmacological suppression of the activation, which produces a decrease in levels of a number of proinflammatory cytokines (i.e., IL-1β, IL-6, TNF-α, and IFN-γ) significantly inhibited neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis in the SVZ. In vitro neurosphere assays reproduced the enhancement of neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis by activated microglia and showed that the cytokines revealed the effects complementarily. These results suggest that activated microglia accumulate in the early postnatal SVZ and that they enhance neurogenesis and oligodendrogenesis via released cytokines. © 2014 the authors.

Osaka T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Neuroscience | Year: 2012

Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature, which response is mediated, at least in part, by noradrenaline (NA) and nitric oxide (NO) in the rostromedial preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus. In the accompanying paper, it was shown that glutamatergic activation of the lateral POA also evokes hypothermic responses. Here, I tested the hypothesis that the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA is critically involved in the neural mechanism of hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Hypoxic ventilation (10% O2-90% N2, 5min) as well as a single microinjection of NA (50pmol) or the NO donor sodium nitroprusside (8.4nmol) into the rostromedial POA evoked an increase in the tail skin temperature and a decrease in the colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. All of these responses were greatly attenuated by pretreatment with multiple microinjections of kynurenic acid (10nmol, four locations), a nonselective glutamate receptor antagonist, but not by those with saline solution, in the bilateral rostral and central parts of the lateral POA. These results suggest that the NA- and NO-sensitive structure in the rostromedial POA activated the glutamatergic transmission in the lateral POA to mediate hypoxia-induced hypothermia. © 2012 IBRO.

The aim of the present study was to investigate the thermoregulatory effects of neuronal activation with sodium l-glutamate (glutamate) in the preoptic area (POA) of the hypothalamus and to examine its possible interaction with the thermogenic effects of GABA and prostaglandin E2 (PGE2). Unilateral microinjection of glutamate (5nmol) into the lateral POA or its vicinity elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature and simultaneous decreases in the O2 consumption rate (VO2), heart rate, and colonic temperature in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized rats. A central subpopulation of these sites at around the level of bregma was also responsive to the thermogenic and tachycardic effects of GABA (30nmol). Although the microinjection of GABA into nearby sites elicited no direct effect, it greatly attenuated the hypothermic effects of glutamate subsequently administered to the same site. These results suggest that activation of the lateral POA elicited heat-loss responses and that its central part provided a tonic inhibitory drive toward heat production and tail vasoconstriction. On the other hand, the microinjection of glutamate elicited initial small decreases and subsequent large increases in VO2 and heart rate in the rostromedial POA. However, no thermoregulatory response was elicited by the microinjection of glutamate at sites where the microinjection of PGE2 (35fmol) elicited thermogenic, tachycardic and hyperthermic responses. These results may suggest that the rostromedial POA contained two glutamate-responsive cell groups that had opposite influences on thermoregulation and that the locus that was highly sensitive to the thermogenic effect of PGE2 was unreactive to glutamate. Collectively, activation of neurons in the lateral POA and rostromedial POA evoked distinct thermoregulatory responses. © 2012 IBRO.

Hirabayashi Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2014

This paper reviews quantitative and qualitative studies conducted to identify changes in the characteristics of hematopoietic stem/progenitor cells (HSCs/HPCs) with or without radiation exposure. The numerical recovery of HSCs/HPCs after radiation exposure is lower than for other types of cells, an effect that may depend on hierarchical ordering of generation age during blood cell differentiation, from primitive HSCs to various differentiated HPCs. Studies are in progress to evaluate gene expression in bone marrow cells and cells in the lineage-negative, c-Kit+, stem cell antigen+ (LKS) fraction from 21-month-old mice, with or without radiation exposure. Preliminary data suggest that cell cycle-related genes, that is, cyclin D1 (Ccnd1), phosphatidylinositol 3 kinase regulatory subunit polypeptide 1 (PiK3r1), and Fyn, are upregulated solely in the LKS fraction from 21-month-old mice irradiated at 6 weeks of age, compared with the LKS fraction from age-matched nonirradiated control mice. Additional studies may provide evidence that the aging phenotype is exaggerated following exposure to ionizing radiation, specifically in the LKS fraction. © 2014 New York Academy of Sciences.

Sato K.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
GLIA | Year: 2015

This review summarizes and organizes the literature concerning the effects of microglia on neurogenesis, particularly focusing on the subgranular zone (SGZ) of the hippocampus and subventricular zone (SVZ) of the lateral ventricles, in which the neurogenic potential is progressively restricted during the life of the organism. A comparison of microglial roles in neurogenesis in these two regions indicates that microglia regulate neurogenesis in a temporally and spatially specific manner. Microglia may also sense signals from the surrounding environment and have regulatory effects on neurogenesis. We speculate microglia function as a hub for the information obtained from the inner and outer brain regions for regulating neurogenesis. Glia Published by Wiley Periodicals, Inc.

Osaka T.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Neuroscience | Year: 2014

Hypoxia evokes a regulated decrease in the body core temperature (Tc) in a variety of animals. The neuronal mechanisms of this response include, at least in part, glutamatergic activation in the lateral preoptic area (LPO) of the hypothalamus. As the sympathetic premotor neurons in the medulla oblongata constitute a cardinal relay station in the descending neuronal pathway from the hypothalamus for thermoregulation, their inhibition can also be critically involved in the mechanisms of the hypoxia-induced hypothermia. Here, I examined the hypothesis that hypoxia-induced hypothermia is mediated by glutamate-responsive neurons in the LPO that activate GABAergic transmission in the rostral raphe pallidus (rRPa) and neighboring parapyramidal region (PPy) of the medulla oblongata in urethane-chloralose-anesthetized, neuromuscularly blocked, artificially ventilated rats. Unilateral microinjection of GABA (15nmol) into the rRPa and PPy regions elicited a prompt increase in tail skin temperature (Ts) and decreases in Tc, oxygen consumption rate (VO2), and heart rate. Next, when the GABAA receptor blocker bicuculline methiodide (bicuculline methiodide (BMI), 10pmol) alone was microinjected into the rRPa, it elicited unexpected contradictory responses: simultaneous increases in Ts, VO2 and heart rate and a decrease in Tc. Then, when BMI was microinjected bilaterally into the PPy, no direct effect on Ts was seen; and thermogenic and tachycardic responses were slight. However, pretreatment of the PPy with BMI, but not vehicle saline, greatly attenuated the hypothermic responses evoked by hypoxic (10%O2-90%N2, 5min) ventilation or bilateral microinjections of glutamate (5nmol, each side) into the LPO. The results suggest that hypoxia-induced hypothermia was mediated, at least in part, by the activation of GABAA receptors in the PPy. © 2014 IBRO.

Azuma Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences
Biological & pharmaceutical bulletin | Year: 2012

Capecitabine, an oral prodrug of 5-fluorouracil (5-FU), is a promising treatment for colorectal, breast and gastric cancers, but often causes hand-foot syndrome (HFS), the most common dose-limiting toxicity. The current study was conducted to investigate the relationship between HFS and efficacy of capecitabine in 98 patients with metastatic breast cancer. Possible associations between HFS and efficacy endpoints, including time-to-treatment failure (TTF), tumor response in metastatic lesions and changes in tumor markers, were investigated retrospectively using electronic medical records. The TTF of group with HFS of grade 1 and ≥2 was significantly longer than that of group with no HFS, respectively (hazard ratio (HR), 0.39; 95% confidence interval (CI), 0.18-0.87 for group with grade 1; HR, 0.42, 95% CI, 0.19-0.90 for group with grade ≥2). Significantly higher disease control rates for the liver metastasis were observed in patients with HFS (grade 1 and greater) than in those without HFS (92.9 vs. 42.9%, p=0.009). Furthermore, prevention of increases in tumor marker levels (carcinoembryonic antigen (CEA), carbohydrate antigen 15-3 (CA15-3) and National Cancer Center-Stomach-439 (NCC-ST439)) was evident in patients with HFS. This study clearly showed a significant correlation between HFS and some efficacy markers of capecitabine therapy in patients with metastatic breast cancer, and suggests that early dose adjustment based on severity of HFS might improve efficacy. Studies are needed to explore predictive biomarkers for HFS/efficacy, so that capecitabine therapy can be further tailored to patient response.

Maruha Nichiro Seafoods Inc. and Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Date: 2010-01-13

A method for accurate and precise measurement of target proteins such as food allergen proteins in the specific foods is provided. The method is a method for immunological measurement of a food allergen protein in a processed food using an antibody against the food allergen protein, comprising adding animal tropomyosin to an assay solution upon measurement.

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