Gorelenkov N.N.,Princeton Plasma Physics Laboratory |
Pinches S.D.,ITER Organization |
Toi K.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2014
The area of energetic particle (EP) physics in fusion research has been actively and extensively researched in recent decades. The progress achieved in advancing and understanding EP physics has been substantial since the last comprehensive review on this topic by Heidbrink and Sadler (1994 Nucl. Fusion 34 535). That review coincided with the start of deuterium-tritium (DT) experiments on the Tokamak Fusion Test Reactor (TFTR) and full scale fusion alphas physics studies. Fusion research in recent years has been influenced by EP physics in many ways including the limitations imposed by the 'sea' of Alfvén eigenmodes (AEs), in particular by the toroidicity-induced AE (TAE) modes and reversed shear AEs (RSAEs). In the present paper we attempt a broad review of the progress that has been made in EP physics in tokamaks and spherical tori since the first DT experiments on TFTR and JET (Joint European Torus), including stellarator/helical devices. Introductory discussions on the basic ingredients of EP physics, i.e., particle orbits in STs, fundamental diagnostic techniques of EPs and instabilities, wave particle resonances and others, are given to help understanding of the advanced topics of EP physics. At the end we cover important and interesting physics issues related to the burning plasma experiments such as ITER (International Thermonuclear Experimental Reactor). © 2014 IAEA.
Yasuhara R.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science |
Furuse H.,Japan Institute for Laser Technology
Optics Letters | Year: 2013
The thermal-birefringence-induced depolarization in terbium gallium garnet (TGG) ceramics has been investigated experimentally. The depolarization ratio of 6.1 × 10-4 has been observed at the maximum input power of 117Wcw, which corresponds to a normalized laser power of p = 0.14. As predicted by the previously proposed theory, the amount of depolarization ratio and its slope with respect to the laser power of the ceramic TGG was approximately the same as that previously reported for high-quality-cut (111) single crystal. © 2013 Optical Society of America.
Ishizawa A.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science |
Waelbroeck F.L.,University of Texas at Austin
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2013
Turbulence is known to drive and sustain magnetic islands of width equal to multiples of the Larmor radius. The nature of the drive is studied here by means of numerical simulations of a fluid electrostatic model in 2D (single helicity) sheared-slab geometry. The electrostatic model eliminates the coalescence of short wavelength islands as a mechanism for sustaining longer wavelength islands. In quiescent islands, the polarization current, which depends on the propagation velocity of the island through the plasma, plays a critical role in determining the growth or decay of island chains. For turbulent islands, the unforced propagation velocity is significantly changed by strong zonal flow. The simulations show, however, that the turbulent fluctuations in the current density are much larger and faster than those in the zonal flow, and that they dominate the steady-state perturbed current density. In order to distinguish the roles of the zonal flow from the direct action of the fluctuations on the islands, a new diagnostic is implemented. This new diagnostic separates the effects of all the sources of parallel current. These are the curvature (which drives Pfirsch-Schlüter currents) and the divergences of the viscous and Reynolds stresses (the latter driving polarization currents). The new diagnostic also enables the contributions from short and long wavelengths to be separated for each term. It shows that in the absence of curvature, the drive is dominated by the contributions to the polarization current from the short wavelength fluctuations, while the long-wavelength fluctuations play a stabilizing role. In the presence of unfavorable curvature, by contrast, the effects of the short- and long-wavelength contributions of the polarization current reverse roles but nearly cancel, leaving the Pfirsch-Schlüter current as the dominant drive. © 2013 AIP Publishing LLC.
Ida K.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science |
Rice J.E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2014
Poloidal and toroidal rotation has been recognized to play an important role in heat transport and magnetohydrodynamic (MHD) stability in tokamaks and helical systems. It is well known that the E × B shear due to poloidal and toroidal flow suppresses turbulence in the plasma and contributes to the improvement of heat and particle transport, while toroidal rotation helps one to stabilize MHD instabilities such as resistive wall modes and neoclassical tearing mode. Therefore, understanding the role of momentum transport in determining plasma rotation is crucial in toroidal discharges, both in tokamaks and helical systems. In this review paper, the driving and damping mechanisms of poloidal and toroidal rotation are outlined. Driving torque due to neutral beam injection and radio-frequency waves, and damping due to parallel viscosity and neoclassical toroidal viscosity (NTV) are described. Regarding momentum transport, the radial flux of momentum has diffusive and non-diffusive (ND) terms, and experimental investigations of these are discussed. The magnitude of the diffusive term of momentum transport is expressed as a coefficient of viscous diffusivity. The ratio of the viscous diffusivity to the thermal diffusivity (Prandtl number) is one of the interesting parameters in plasma physics. It is typically close to unity, but sometimes can deviate significantly depending on the turbulent state. The ND terms have two categories: one is the so-called momentum pinch, whose magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the velocity itself, and the other is an off-diagonal term in which the magnitude is proportional to (or at least depends on) the temperature or/and pressure gradient, independent of the velocity or its gradient. The former has no sign dependence; rotation due to the momentum pinch does not depend on the sign of the rotation itself, whether it is parallel to the plasma current (co-direction) or anti-parallel to the plasma current (counter-direction). In contrast, the latter has a sign dependence; the rotation due to the off-diagonal residual term is either in the co- or counter-direction depending on the turbulence state, but not on the sign of the rotation itself. This residual term can also act as a momentum source for intrinsic rotation. The experimental results of investigations of these ND terms are described. Finally the current understanding of the mechanisms behind the ND terms in momentum transport, and predictions of intrinsic rotation driven by these terms are reviewed. © 2014 IAEA, Vienna.
Takeiri Y.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Review of Scientific Instruments | Year: 2010
Giant negative ion sources, producing high-current of several tens amps with high energy of several hundreds keV to 1 MeV, are required for a neutral beam injector (NBI) in a fusion device. The giant negative ion sources are cesium-seeded plasma sources, in which the negative ions are produced on the cesium-covered surface. Their characteristic features are discussed with the views of large-volume plasma production, large-area beam acceleration, and high-voltage dc holding. The international thermonuclear experimental reactor NBI employs a 1 MeV-40 A of deuterium negative ion source, and intensive development programs for the rf-driven source plasma production and the multistage electrostatic acceleration are in progress, including the long pulse operation for 3600 s. Present status of the development, as well as the achievements of the giant negative ion sources in the working injectors, is also summarized. © 2010 American Institute of Physics.
Yamada H.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2011
The physical understanding of net-current-free helical plasmas has progressed in the Large Helical Device (LHD) since the last Fusion Energy Conference in Geneva, 2008. The experimental results from LHD have promoted detailed physical documentation of features specific to net-current-free 3D helical plasmas as well as complementary to the tokamak approach. The primary heating source is neutral beam injection (NBI) with a heating power of 23 MW, and electron cyclotron heating with 3.7 MW plays an important role in local heating and power modulation in transport studies. The maximum central density has reached 1.2 × 10 21 m -3 due to the formation of an internal diffusion barrier (IDB) at a magnetic field of 2.5 T. The IDB is maintained for 3 s by refuelling with repetitive pellet injection. In a different operational regime with moderate density less than 2 × 10 19 m -3, a plasma with a central ion temperature reaching 5.6 keV exhibits the formation of an internal transport barrier (ITB). The ion thermal diffusivity decreases to the level predicted by neoclassical transport. In addition to the rotation driven by the momentum input due to tangential NBI, the existence of intrinsic torque to drive toroidal rotation is identified in the plasma with an ITB. This ITB is accompanied by an impurity hole which generates an impurity-free core. The impurity hole is due to a large outward convection of impurities in spite of the negative radial electric field. The magnitude of the impurity hole is enhanced in the magnetic configuration with a large helical ripple and for heavier atoms. Another mechanism for suppressing impurity contamination is identified at the plasma edge with a stochastic magnetic field. A helical system shares common physics issues with tokamaks such as 3D equilibria, transport in a stochastic magnetic field, plasma response to a resonant magnetic perturbation, divertor physics and the role of radial electric field and meso-scale structure. © 2011 IAEA, Vienna.
Okamura S.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Contributions to Plasma Physics | Year: 2010
Magnetic configurations of LHD experiments are analyzed from a viewpoint of boundary shape. Effects of Fourier mode components on confinement properties are examined for three configurations with magnetic axis shift. It was confirmed that the basic confinement properties are determined by a small number of components. Contribution of components producing a non-planar axis structure is necessary to obtain the fundamental confinement properties of inward shifted (favorable drift orbits) and outward shifted (creation of magnetic well) configurations of LHD. Further improvement is possible by controlling appropriate Fourier components. © 2010 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Magnetic confinement experiments: Plasma-material interactions, divertors, limiters, scrape-off layer (EX/D), stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W)
Yamada H.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Nuclear Fusion | Year: 2013
This paper summarizes the results presented at the 24th IAEA Fusion Energy Conference in the categories of plasma-material interactions, divertors, limiters, scrape-off layer (EX/D), stability (EX/S), wave-plasma interactions, current drive, heating, energetic particles (EX/W) in magnetic confinement experiments. In total, 149 papers including post-deadline papers have contributed to these categories. Several closely related papers, which are actually categorized in confinement (EX/C), have also been included. The understanding of experimental results has progressed remarkably, in particular, in the topics of resonant magnetic perturbation and ITER-like wall, which are the highlight of this conference. At the same time, identification of the bridging mechanism between the actuator and the consequence still requires further dedicated efforts so as to provide more accurate and reliable extrapolations to ITER and DEMO. © 2013 IAEA, Vienna.
Horiuchi R.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Plasma and Fusion Research | Year: 2011
Based on the past two-decades activities at the Theory and Computer Simulation Center (TCSC) and the Department of Simulation Science (DSS) in the National Institute for Fusion Science (NIFS), the Numerical Simulation Research Project (NSRP) has been launched to continue the activities in TCSC and DSS, and evolve them in a more systematic way for the re-organization of NIFS in 2010. In this study, the progress of simulation science at NIFS in the past two decades is reviewed and an overview of the NSRP for the foreseeable future is reported. © 2011 The Japan Society of Plasma Science and Nuclear Fusion Research.
Nishimura S.,Japan National Institute for Fusion Science
Physics of Plasmas | Year: 2015
The spherical coordinates expressions of the Rosenbluth potentials are applied to the field particle portion in the linearized Coulomb collision operator. The Sonine (generalized Laguerre) polynomial expansion formulas for this operator allowing general field particles' velocity distributions are derived. An important application area of these formulas is the study of flows of thermalized particles in NBI-heated or burning plasmas since the energy space structure of the fast ions' slowing down velocity distribution cannot be expressed by usual orthogonal polynomial expansions, and since the Galilean invariant property and the momentum conservation of the collision must be distinguished there. © 2015 AIP Publishing LLC.