Guillette Jr. L.J.,Medical University of South Carolina |
Iguchi T.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Science | Year: 2012
Matsubayashi Y.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Annual Review of Plant Biology | Year: 2014
Cell-to-cell signaling is essential for many processes in plant growth and development, including coordination of cellular responses to developmental and environmental cues. Cumulative studies have demonstrated that peptide signaling plays a greater-than-anticipated role in such intercellular communication. Some peptides act as signals during plant growth and development, whereas others are involved in defense responses or symbiosis. Peptides secreted as signals often undergo posttranslational modification and proteolytic processing to generate smaller peptides composed of approximately 10 amino acid residues. Such posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals constitute one of the largest groups of secreted peptide signals in plants. The location of the modification group incorporated into the peptides by specific modification enzymes and the peptide chain length defined by the processing enzymes are critical for biological function and receptor interaction. This review covers 20 years of research into posttranslationally modified small-peptide signals in plants. Copyright © 2014 by Annual Reviews.
Kofuji R.,Kanazawa University |
Hasebe M.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Current Opinion in Plant Biology | Year: 2014
Stem cells self-renew and produce cells that differentiate to become the source of the plant body. The moss Physcomitrella patens forms eight types of stem cells during its life cycle and serves as a useful model in which to explore the evolution of such cells. The common ancestor of land plants is inferred to have been haplontic and to have formed stem cells only in the gametophyte generation. A single stem cell would have been maintained in the ancestral gametophyte meristem, as occurs in extant basal land plants. During land plant evolution, stem cells diverged in the gametophyte generation to form different types of body parts, including the protonema and rhizoid filaments, leafy-shoot and thalloid gametophores, and gametangia formed in moss. A simplex meristem with a single stem cell was acquired in the sporophyte generation early in land plant evolution. Subsequently, sporophyte stem cells became multiple in the meristem and were elaborated further in seed plant lineages, although the evolutionary origin of niche cells, which maintain stem cells is unknown. Comparisons of gene regulatory networks are expected to give insights into the general mechanisms of stem cell formation and maintenance in land plants and provide information about their evolution. P. patens develops at least seven types of simplex meristem in the gametophyte and at least one type in the sporophyte generation and is a good material for regulatory network comparisons. In this review, we summarize recently revealed molecular mechanisms of stem cell initiation and maintenance in the moss. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.
Minagawa J.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Frontiers in Plant Science | Year: 2013
Plants and algae have acquired the ability to acclimate to ever-changing environments in order to survive. During photosynthesis, light energy is converted by several membrane protein supercomplexes into electrochemical energy, which is eventually used to assimilate CO2. The efficiency of photosynthesis is modulated by many environmental factors such as quality and quantity of light, temperature, drought, and CO2 concentration, among others. Accumulating evidence indicates that photosynthetic supercomplexes undergo supramolecular reorganization within a short time frame during acclimation to an environmental change. This reorganization includes state transitions that balance the excitation of photosystem I and II by shuttling peripheral antenna proteins between the two, thermal energy dissipation that occurs at energy-quenching sites within the light-harvesting antenna generated for negative feedback when excess light is absorbed, and cyclic electron flow that is facilitated between photosystem I and the cytochrome bf complex when cells demand more ATP and/or need to activate energy dissipation. This review will highlight the recent findings regarding these environmental acclimation events in model organisms with particular attention to the unicellular green alga C. reinhardtii and with reference to the vascular plant A. thaliana, which offers a glimpse into the dynamic behavior of photosynthetic machineries in nature. © 2013 Minagawa.
Minagawa J.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Biochimica et Biophysica Acta - Bioenergetics | Year: 2011
In oxygen-evolving photosynthesis, the two photosystems-photosystem I and photosystem II-function in parallel, and their excitation levels must be balanced to maintain an optimal photosynthetic rate under natural light conditions. State transitions in photosynthetic organisms balance the absorbed light energy between the two photosystems in a short time by relocating light-harvesting complex II proteins. For over a decade, the understanding of the physiological consequences, the molecular mechanism, and its regulation has increased considerably. After providing an overview of the general understanding of state transitions, this review focuses on the recent advances of the molecular aspects of state transitions with a particular emphasis on the studies using the green alga Chlamydomonas reinhardtii. This article is part of a Special Issue entitled: Regulation of Electron Transport in Chloroplasts. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.
Matsubayashi Y.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Genes to Cells | Year: 2012
Peptide signaling plays a major role in various aspects of plant growth and development, as has been shown in recent biochemical, genetic and bioinformatic studies. There are over a dozen secreted peptides recognized in plants known to regulate cellular functions. To become functional, these secreted peptide signals often undergo post-translational modifications, such as tyrosine sulfation, proline hydroxylation, and hydroxyproline arabinosylation, and successive proteolytic processing. These types of 'small post-translationally modified peptide signals' are one of the major groups of peptide signals found in plants. In parallel with the discovery of peptide signals, specific receptors for such peptide signals were identified as being membrane-localized leucine-rich repeat receptor kinases. This short review highlights the recent progress in research on small post-translationally modified peptide signals, including our own research. © 2011 The Author. Journal compilation © 2011 by the Molecular Biology Society of Japan/Blackwell Publishing Ltd.
Kamada Y.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Autophagy | Year: 2010
Autophagy is induced by inactivation of Tor complex 1 (TORC1), such as what happens during nutrient limitation and rapamycin treatment. However, the mechanism by which TORC1 regulates autophagy remains unclear. The Atg1 kinase complex that comprises Atg1 and its binding prime-numbered Atg proteins (Atg11, Atg13, Atg17, Atg29 and Atg31) has long been a candidate for TORC1's downstream target. This is especially the case for Atg13, a regulatory component of the Atg1 complex, which is highly phosphorylated in a TORC1-dependent manner. We find that yeast TORC1 directly phosphorylates Atg13 on at least eight Ser residues. Strikingly, expression of an unphosphorylatable Atg13 (Atg13-8SA) mutant bypasses the TORC1 pathway to induce autophagy in vegetatively growing cells. Induction of autophagy by Atg13-8SA is accompanied by molecular events involving Atg proteins, such as formation of the Atg1 complex, activation of Atg1, and the organization of the pre-autophagosomal structure (PAS). These findings suggest that formation of the Atg1 complex is a primary step at induction of autophagy, and that dephosphorylation of Atg13 acts as a molecular switch to turn on starvation-induced autophagy. © 2010 Landes Bioscience.
Shigenobu S.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Proceedings. Biological sciences / The Royal Society | Year: 2013
Aphids evolved novel cells, called bacteriocytes, that differentiate specifically to harbour the obligatory mutualistic endosymbiotic bacteria Buchnera aphidicola. The genome of the host aphid Acyrthosiphon pisum contains many orphan genes that display no similarity with genes found in other sequenced organisms, prompting us to hypothesize that some of these orphan genes are related to lineage-specific traits, such as symbiosis. We conducted deep sequencing of bacteriocytes mRNA followed by whole mount in situ hybridizations of over-represented transcripts encoding aphid-specific orphan proteins. We identified a novel class of genes that encode small proteins with signal peptides, which are often cysteine-rich, that are over-represented in bacteriocytes. These genes are first expressed at a developmental time point coincident with the incorporation of symbionts strictly in the cells that contribute to the bacteriocyte and this bacteriocyte-specific expression is maintained throughout the aphid's life. The expression pattern suggests that recently evolved secretion proteins act within bacteriocytes, perhaps to mediate the symbiosis with beneficial bacterial partners, which is reminiscent of the evolution of novel cysteine-rich secreted proteins of leguminous plants that regulate nitrogen-fixing endosymbionts.
Yoshida S.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Reproduction | Year: 2012
Spermatogenesis in mice and other mammalians is supported by a robust stem cell system. Stem cells maintain themselves and continue to produce progeny that will differentiate into sperm over a long period. The pioneering studies conducted from the 1950s to the 1970s, which were based largely on extensive morphological analyses, have established the fundamentals of mammalian spermatogenesis and its stem cells. The prevailing so-called Asingle (As) model, which was originally established in 1971, proposes that singly isolated Asspermatogonia are in fact the stem cells. In 1994, the first functional stem cell assay was established based on the formation of repopulating colonies after transplantation in germ cell-depleted host testes, which substantially accelerated the understanding of spermatogenic stem cells. However, because testicular tissues are dissociated into single-cell suspension before transplantation, it was impossible to evaluate the As and other classical models solely by this technique. From 2007 onwards, functional assessment of stem cells without destroying the tissue architecture has become feasible by means of pulse-labeling and live-imaging strategies. Results obtained from these experiments have been challenging the classical thought of stem cells, in which stem cells are a limited number of specialized cells undergoing asymmetric division to produce one self-renewing and one differentiating daughter cells. In contrast, the emerging data suggest that an extended and heterogeneous population of cells exhibiting different degrees of self-renewing and differentiating probabilities forms a reversible, flexible, and stochastic stem cell system as a population. These features may lead to establishment of a more universal principle on stem cells that is shared by other systems. © 2012 Society for Reproduction and Fertility.
Chen T.H.H.,Oregon State University |
Murata N.,Japan National Institute for Basic Biology
Plant, Cell and Environment | Year: 2011
Various compatible solutes enable plants to tolerate abiotic stress, and glycinebetaine (GB) is one of the most-studied among such solutes. Early research on GB focused on the maintenance of cellular osmotic potential in plant cells. Subsequent genetically engineered synthesis of GB-biosynthetic enzymes and studies of transgenic plants demonstrated that accumulation of GB increases tolerance of plants to various abiotic stresses at all stages of their life cycle. Such GB-accumulating plants exhibit various advantageous traits, such as enlarged fruits and flowers and/or increased seed number under non-stress conditions. However, levels of GB in transgenic GB-accumulating plants are relatively low being, generally, in the millimolar range. Nonetheless, these low levels of GB confer considerable tolerance to various stresses, without necessarily contributing significantly to cellular osmotic potential. Moreover, low levels of GB, applied exogenously or generated by transgenes for GB biosynthesis, can induce the expression of certain stress-responsive genes, including those for enzymes that scavenge reactive oxygen species. Thus, transgenic approaches that increase tolerance to abiotic stress have enhanced our understanding of mechanisms that protect plants against such stress. © 2010 Blackwell Publishing Ltd.