National Defense Academy of Japan , abbreviated NDA is the national, four-year university-level military academy aimed to educate and train students who will be serving as officers in the three services of the Japan Self-Defense Forces. It is located in Yokosuka, Kanagawa on the grounds close to the former Imperial Japanese Army Academy. Wikipedia.
Ochi Y.,Japan National Defense Academy
AIAA Modeling and Simulation Technologies Conference, 2015 | Year: 2015
This paper presents modeling the hang glider dynamics as a system composed of two bodies interacting with each other under kinematic and geometric constraints. Specifically, first the wing and the pilot suspended from the wing are independently modeled by taking account of internal forces at two joints, i.e., the hang point on the keel and the control-frame bar gripped by the pilot as well as the geometric constraint that the pilot is suspended by the hang strap. Then the internal forces are analytically eliminated to derive a state equation that describes the hang glider dynamics including the interaction between the wing and the pilot. After showing a general framework, the detailed descriptions are given to the longitudinal dynamics. The proposed modeling method has been applied to a hang glider in literature. The numerical analysis and simulation results indicate the validity of the dynamic model. © 2015, American Institute of Aeronautics and Astronautics Inc. All rights reserved.
Shogaki T.,Japan National Defense Academy
Soils and Foundations | Year: 2017
The mechanism by which samples are disturbed as the sampling device penetrates the soil during sample collection was examined based on pore water pressure behavior, void ratio (e), and the movement of soil particles in model tests on Toyoura sand. Samplers with tubes with inner diameters of 35, 45, and 75mm and cutting edge angles of 6° and 90° were used for the tests. The penetration speed (S p) was in the range of 0.6-5.8cm/s, while the relative density (D r) was in the range of 6%-83%.All the soil particles inside the tubes, with the exception of those close to the tube wall, shifted simultaneously due to local disturbance, which caused a lubricating effect. The distance from the tube wall (D w) to which the soil was affected by wall friction during tube penetration was about 0.35-1.35mm, similar to that of clayey material, which is nominally less than 2mm. Moreover, the results were consistent with those for the tube sampling of Niigata sand deposits, for which D w was unrelated to the tube diameter and D r. This is contrary to the common belief that the movement of sand particles and changes in e are small for a 90° cutting edge angle in a tube 45mm in diameter. However, this phenomenon can be explained by the existence of an area of disturbance. For Toyoura sand, this area of disturbance was formed more easily by a 90° cutting edge angle than by a 6° cutting edge angle. © 2017.
Konishi Y.,Japan National Defense Academy
Scandinavian Journal of Medicine and Science in Sports | Year: 2017
This study aimed to investigate the effect of surgery on the gamma loop of the quadriceps on the side with an intact knee in patients with anterior cruciate ligament (ACL) injuries. We compared longitudinally the response of alpha motor neurons to vibration stimulation of the quadriceps on the side with an intact knee before and after ACL reconstruction. To evaluate alpha motor neuron response, we measured the maximal knee extension strength and integrated electromyography of the vastus medialis, vastus lateralis, and rectus femoris. After obtaining pre-vibration data from each subject, vibration stimulation was applied to the infrapatellar tendon, and the same measurements were performed immediately after stimulation. The results of this study showed that the response to prolonged vibration stimulation on the intact side of the quadriceps did not differ pre- and post-surgery. As vibration stimuli normally elicit a decrease in alpha motor neuron activity in normal individuals, abnormal responses to prolonged vibration stimulation of the quadriceps on the side with an intact knee might be observed in patients with ACL injuries. The abnormality of the gamma loop of the quadriceps on the side with an intact knee was probably induced by the rupture. Based on these results, we conclude that surgery does not induce further gamma loop abnormalities on the intact side of the quadriceps. © 2017 John Wiley & Sons A/S.
Tanaka H.,Japan National Defense Academy
Acta Astronautica | Year: 2011
Novel methods for the estimation and correction of antenna surface deformations are developed and investigated. Surface adjustment mechanisms, which are used for a reconfigurable antenna system, are used to estimate and correct surface errors. Relations between antenna surface errors and changes in antenna gains caused by intentional deformations are derived from the Ruze equation. In these methods, an antenna surface is deformed using the surface adjustment mechanisms, and the changes in the gains caused by the intentional deformations are measured. On the basis of the information regarding the intentional deformations and the resultant changes in the antenna gains, original deformation of the antenna surface is estimated. The deformation is corrected using the surface adjustment mechanisms. Some numerical simulations are carried out to investigate the feasibility of these methods. The results of these simulations show that the antenna deformations are estimated and corrected adequately using these methods. © 2010 Elsevier Ltd.
Ouchi K.,Japan National Defense Academy
Remote Sensing | Year: 2013
The present article is an introductory paper in this special issue on synthetic aperture radar (SAR). A short review is presented on the recent trend and development of SAR and related techniques with selected topics, including the fields of applications, specifications of airborne and spaceborne SARs, and information contents in and interpretations of amplitude data, interferometric SAR (InSAR) data, and polarimetric SAR (PolSAR) data. The review is by no means extensive, and as such only brief summaries of of each selected topics and key references are provided. For further details, the readers are recommended to read the literature given in the references theirin. © 2013 by the author.
Kohga M.,Japan National Defense Academy
Propellants, Explosives, Pyrotechnics | Year: 2011
The burning rate of AP/HTPB composite propellant increases with increasing AP content and with decreasing AP size. In addition, the burning rate can be enhanced with the addition of Fe2O3. The burning characteristics and thermal decomposition behavior of AP/HTPB composite propellant using coarse and fine AP particles with and without Fe 2O3 at various AP contents were investigated to obtain an exhaustive set of data. As the AP content decreased, the burning rate decreased and the propellants containing less than a certain AP content self-quenched or did not ignite. The self-quenched combustion began at both lower and higher pressures. The lower limit of AP content to burn the propellant with coarse AP was lower than that with fine AP. The lower limit of AP content to burn was decreased by the addition of Fe2O3. The thermal decomposition behavior of propellants prepared with 20-80 % AP was investigated. The decrease in the peak temperature of the exothermic decomposition suggested an increased burning rate. However, a quantitative relationship between the thermochemical behavior and the burning characteristics, such as the burning rate and the lower limit of AP content to burn, could not be determined. Copyright © 2011 WILEY-VCH Verlag GmbH & Co. KGaA, Weinheim.
Yamada H.,Japan National Defense Academy
Electrochimica Acta | Year: 2014
A single living cell (PC12), cultured on a polystyrene dish and an albumin island immobilized on glass, were successfully imaged utilizing the differential standing approach (d-SA) mode of a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM). In the d-SA mode, the differential of the output voltage of a tuning fork (rather than its absolute value) is used as the signal for maintaining a constant distance between the probe of a scanning ion conductance microscope (SICM) and the sample. The topography and SICM images were obtained simultaneously, and approach curves, when the tip approached the immobilized albumin or the PC12 cell membrane, were also obtained. The settings for the d-SA mode were carefully determined from the PC12 cell approach curve. Furthermore, differences in the topographies of the immobilized albumin and living PC12 cell images obtained using the standing approach (SA) versus d-SA mode are discussed. It is shown that SICM in d-SA mode is capable of imaging soft samples such as living cells without damaging them. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd.
Tada S.,Japan National Defense Academy
Physics in Medicine and Biology | Year: 2010
This study investigates the oxygen mass transport in the region around the human carotid bifurcation, particularly addressing the effects of bifurcation geometry and pulsatile blood flow on the oxygen transport between the blood flow and artery wall tissue, coupled with the metabolic oxygen consumption and oxygen diffusion in the artery wall tissue. The temporal variations and spatial distributions of the oxygen tension are predicted quantitatively using a geometric model of the human carotid bifurcation and realistic blood flow waveforms. Results reveal that the flow separation at the outside wall of the sinus of the internal carotid artery (ICA) can markedly alter the flow pattern, oxygen tension and the oxygen wall flux. Results also clarify that the flow unsteadiness has a secondary effect on the oxygen tension inside the wall. The non-dimensional oxygen flux, the Sherwood number Sh, at the outside wall of the ICA sinus, takes markedly lower values of about 45 than at other sites because the rates of oxygen transport by the convective flow are reduced at the outside wall of the ICA sinus. The transverse distributions of the oxygen tension inside the artery wall show parabolic profiles having minima in the middle of the wall thickness, with the lowest value of 35 mmHg. These predicted distributions of the oxygen tension inside the wall closely resemble those obtained from experiments. The results demonstrate that hypoxic zones appear inside the artery walls at locations where atherosclerotic lesions are prone to develop. © 2010 Institute of Physics and Engineering in Medicine.
Kohga M.,Japan National Defense Academy |
Okamoto K.,Japan National Defense Academy
Combustion and Flame | Year: 2011
Ammonium nitrate (AN)-based propellant is plagued by several drawbacks: low burning rate, poor ignitability, and low energy. The application of an energetic binder is an effective approach to the practical use of AN-based propellants but has not been used to date because the synthesis processes are complicated and expensive. Polytetrahydrofuran (PTHF) is a raw material for rubber products and is not an energetic material. The repeating unit of PTHF has one oxygen atom, and although PTHF could not become solid with use of a curing agent alone, PTHF became rubbery with the use of glycerin as a crosslinking modifier. Thus the PTHF/glycerin mixture would be a useful binder to improve the burning characteristics of AN-based propellants, due to the oxygen atoms in the mixture. The use of PTHF/glycerin binder is theoretically effective for enhancing the performance of AN-based propellant, but the combined AN/PTHF/glycerin propellants failed to ignite; they only generated a flashing flame at the ignition event. The ignition failure of the AN/PTHF/glycerin propellant occurred because the melted binder covered the burning surface and interfered with the evolution of the AN decomposition gases and the heat flux feedback from the flame to AN. The AN/PTHF/glycerin propellant was then burned with the addition of a catalyst, and the effect of PTHF/glycerin binder on the improvement of burning characteristics was apparent. The PTHF/glycerin binder was an effective binder material for improving a performance of the AN-based composite propellant. © 2010 The Combustion Institute.
Hasue K.,Japan National Defense Academy
Journal of Energetic Materials | Year: 2014
The burning rate of propellants is affected by pressure and temperature. The relation between the burning rate and pressure has been well studied. However, the effect of the initial temperature on the burning rate has not been investigated quantitatively. In this study, the burning rate of bis (1H-tetrazolyl) amine ammonium salt and potassium nitrate phase-stabilized ammonium nitrate mixtures was examined and an equation for the burning rate as a function of pressure and temperature was obtained. In general, the burning rates predicted by the regression equations were in good agreement with the observed values. The temperature sensitivities were also predicted using the regression equation and compared with the observed values and good agreement was found between the predicted and observed values. © 2014 Copyright Taylor and Francis Group, LLC.