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Kimura T.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Araki E.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Takayama H.,Japan Meteorological Agency JMA | Kitada K.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | And 3 more authors.
IEEE Journal of Oceanic Engineering | Year: 2013

In the Integrated Ocean Drilling Program (IODP), the long-term borehole monitoring system (LTBMS) has been planned for installation into boreholes in seafloor settings in the Nankai Trough, Japan. The LTBMS sensors are extremely sensitive instruments for collecting broadband dynamics to elucidate the mechanisms of megathrust earthquakes, which occur repeatedly in plate subduction zones. However, during IODP Expedition 319, it became apparent that the strong ocean current 'Kuroshio' causes vortex-induced vibration (VIV) that damages sensors during installation. Consequently, the LTBMS sensors must be not only highly sensitive but also robust to prevail against VIV. Therefore, sensors with antivibration mechanisms were developed by a Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology (JAMSTEC, Kanagawa, Japan) project team. After development was completed, noise evaluation tests and vibration and shock tests simulating vibration and shock in the installation scheme were conducted to confirm that the antivibration mechanism was functional. Power spectral density analysis was conducted using background noise recorded in a low-noise location before and after the vibration and shock tests. Results show that the sensor response was not changed by the vibration or shock tests. Finally, all sensors were loaded onto D/V Chikyu for installation at the C0002 site during IODP Expedition 332. © 1976-2012 IEEE. Source


Thompson R.L.,Norsk Institutt for Luftforskning NILU | Patra P.K.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Chevallier F.,French Climate and Environment Sciences Laboratory | Maksyutov S.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | And 16 more authors.
Nature Communications | Year: 2016

Increasing atmospheric carbon dioxide (CO2) is the principal driver of anthropogenic climate change. Asia is an important region for the global carbon budget, with 4 of the world's 10 largest national emitters of CO2. Using an ensemble of seven atmospheric inverse systems, we estimated land biosphere fluxes (natural, land-use change and fires) based on atmospheric observations of CO2 concentration. The Asian land biosphere was a net sink of -0.46 (-0.70-0.24) PgC per year (median and range) for 1996-2012 and was mostly located in East Asia, while in South and Southeast Asia the land biosphere was close to carbon neutral. In East Asia, the annual CO2 sink increased between 1996-2001 and 2008-2012 by 0.56 (0.30-0.81) PgC, accounting for ∼35% of the increase in the global land biosphere sink. Uncertainty in the fossil fuel emissions contributes significantly (32%) to the uncertainty in land biosphere sink change. Source


Katata G.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | Katata G.,Karlsruhe Institute of Technology | Chino M.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | Kobayashi T.,Japan Atomic Energy Agency | And 9 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2015

Temporal variations in the amount of radionuclides released into the atmosphere during the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Station (FNPS1) accident and their atmospheric and marine dispersion are essential to evaluate the environmental impacts and resultant radiological doses to the public. In this paper, we estimate the detailed atmospheric releases during the accident using a reverse estimation method which calculates the release rates of radionuclides by comparing measurements of air concentration of a radionuclide or its dose rate in the environment with the ones calculated by atmospheric and oceanic transport, dispersion and deposition models. The atmospheric and oceanic models used are WSPEEDI-II (Worldwide version of System for Prediction of Environmental Emergency Dose Information) and SEA-GEARN-FDM (Finite difference oceanic dispersion model), both developed by the authors. A sophisticated deposition scheme, which deals with dry and fog-water depositions, cloud condensation nuclei (CCN) activation, and subsequent wet scavenging due to mixed-phase cloud microphysics (in-cloud scavenging) for radioactive iodine gas (I2 and CH3I) and other particles (CsI, Cs, and Te), was incorporated into WSPEEDI-II to improve the surface deposition calculations. The results revealed that the major releases of radionuclides due to the FNPS1 accident occurred in the following periods during March 2011: the afternoon of 12 March due to the wet venting and hydrogen explosion at Unit 1, midnight of 14 March when the SRV (safety relief valve) was opened three times at Unit 2, the morning and night of 15 March, and the morning of 16 March. According to the simulation results, the highest radioactive contamination areas around FNPS1 were created from 15 to 16 March by complicated interactions among rainfall, plume movements, and the temporal variation of release rates. The simulation by WSPEEDI-II using the new source term reproduced the local and regional patterns of cumulative surface deposition of total 131I and 137Cs and air dose rate obtained by airborne surveys. The new source term was also tested using three atmospheric dispersion models (Modèle Lagrangien de Dispersion de Particules d'ordre zéro: MLDP0, Hybrid Single Particle Lagrangian Integrated Trajectory Model: HYSPLIT, and Met Office's Numerical Atmospheric-dispersion Modelling Environment: NAME) for regional and global calculations, and the calculated results showed good agreement with observed air concentration and surface deposition of 137Cs in eastern Japan. © 2015 Author(s). Source


Valdivieso M.,University of Reading | Haines K.,University of Reading | Balmaseda M.,ECMWF | Chang Y.-S.,National Oceanic and Atmospheric Administration | And 18 more authors.
Climate Dynamics | Year: 2015

Sixteen monthly air–sea heat flux products from global ocean/coupled reanalyses are compared over 1993–2009 as part of the Ocean Reanalysis Intercomparison Project (ORA-IP). Objectives include assessing the global heat closure, the consistency of temporal variability, comparison with other flux products, and documenting errors against in situ flux measurements at a number of OceanSITES moorings. The ensemble of 16 ORA-IP flux estimates has a global positive bias over 1993–2009 of 4.2 ± 1.1 W m−2. Residual heat gain (i.e., surface flux + assimilation increments) is reduced to a small positive imbalance (typically, +1–2 W m−2). This compensation between surface fluxes and assimilation increments is concentrated in the upper 100 m. Implied steady meridional heat transports also improve by including assimilation sources, except near the equator. The ensemble spread in surface heat fluxes is dominated by turbulent fluxes (>40 W m−2 over the western boundary currents). The mean seasonal cycle is highly consistent, with variability between products mostly <10 W m−2. The interannual variability has consistent signal-to-noise ratio (~2) throughout the equatorial Pacific, reflecting ENSO variability. Comparisons at tropical buoy sites (10°S–15°N) over 2007–2009 showed too little ocean heat gain (i.e., flux into the ocean) in ORA-IP (up to 1/3 smaller than buoy measurements) primarily due to latent heat flux errors in ORA-IP. Comparisons with the Stratus buoy (20°S, 85°W) over a longer period, 2001–2009, also show the ORA-IP ensemble has 16 W m−2 smaller net heat gain, nearly all of which is due to too much latent cooling caused by differences in surface winds imposed in ORA-IP. © 2015 The Author(s) Source


Takagi A.,Japan Meteorological Agency JMA | Fujiwara K.,Japan Meteorological Agency JMA | Ohkura T.,Kyoto University | Luis A.C.,Institute of Volcanology and Seismology | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Disaster Research | Year: 2015

Determining the location and the amount of volume change of the pressure source beneath a volcano during the eruption preparation stage is an important issue in monitoring the magma accumulation. To do so, we have implemented a GPS campaign survey network around the Mayon volcano and monitored ground deformation since 2005. Rapid grounddeflating deformation was detected accompanied by the 2009 eruption. The Mogi model pressure source was estimated to be 8.5 km deep beneath the summit and the amount of volume change −13 × 106 m3. In magma accumulation preceding the 2009 eruption, round deformation showed a weak inflationary trend, ut it was difficult to evaluate the source parameters definitively. After the 2009 eruption, no deformation has been detected by the Continuous GPS observation network since 2012. Trend of many baselines of continuous and campaign network turned to extension since 2014. Magma may have started accumulating beneath the Mayon volcano. © 2014 Fuji Technology Press. All rights reserved. Source

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