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Chuntrakort P.,Khon Kaen University | Otsuka M.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | Hayashi K.,Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Science | Takenaka A.,Japan National Agriculture and Food Research Organization | And 2 more authors.
Livestock Science | Year: 2014

Methane emissions from ruminant livestock are problematic with respect to the energy utilization efficiency of animal feed as well as environmental sustainability due to such emissions being a major greenhouse gas source. The objective of this experiment was to determine the methane emissions and feeding performance of two breeds of Zebu beef cattle fed rice straw based diets with oil plant inclusion. Eight mature bulls (four Thai native and four Brahman crossbred beef cattle weighing 290±10.2 and 401±29.7. kg (mean±SD), respectively) were assigned to a replicated 4×4 Latin square design with 21 day periods. The following dietary treatments were assigned: 1=control diet, 2=whole cottonseed diet, 3=whole sunflower seed diet and 4=coconut kernel diet. The animals were individually placed in metabolic cages and respiration chambers to determine feed intake, total tract digestibility and methane emissions. The two cattle breeds were not different in their dry matter intake per body weight (or metabolic body weight) and digestibility, but the corresponding values for the oil plant dietary treatments were less (P<0.001) than those for the control diet. All of the oil plant treatments decreased (P<0.001) the dry matter and NDF digestibility compared to the control diet, but the oil plants had no effect on ruminal pH, ammonia nitrogen or total volatile fatty acid concentration. The methane emissions of the Brahman crossbred beef cattle were greater (P<0.001) than those of the Thai native cattle (135.4 and 171.5. L/day), but there was no difference (P>0.05) when corrected for dry matter intake, organic matter intake, metabolic size or gross energy intake. The methane emission rate was reduced (P<0.001) by up to 50.1% by the oil plant feeding strategy compared to the control diet. The methane emission rate of the base line typical feeding system in the control diet (10.4%) appeared to be much greater than the Intergovernmental Panel on Climate Change value of 6.5% for cattle fed low-quality crop residues or by-products. Our results demonstrated that methane emissions did not differ between Zebu beef cattle when corrected for metabolic body weight and feed or gross energy intake. The inclusion of oil plants in the diets, such as the coconut kernel, sunflower seed and cottonseed, affects intake, digestibility and potentially be used as an enteric methane mitigation feeding strategy. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source


Huong D.T.T.,University of Tokyo | Jasmani S.,Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Science | Jayasankar V.,Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Science | Wilder M.,Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Science
Aquaculture | Year: 2010

Na/K-ATPase activity and osmo-ionic regulation were examined in Litopenaeus vannamei exposed to low salinities. The hemolymph osmolality of shrimp exposed to very low salinities (0.5 ppt and 1 ppt) decreased rapidly after 6 h from 800 mOsm to 540-560 mOsm; these individuals could not survive beyond 1 day. Under exposure to 7 ppt, osmolality levels decreased rapidly to 630 and 570 mOsm after 6 h and 1 day respectively, whereas in shrimp exposed to 18 ppt, levels declined slowly from 800 mOsm to 700 mOsm after 6 h and thereafter remained stable for 7 days until the end of the experiment. Hemolymph sodium ion levels showed a pattern of change similar to that of hemolymph osmolality, with initial levels being 380 mmol/L and decreasing to 180 mmol/L under very low salinity. Changes in calcium, potassium, and magnesium ion concentrations were also investigated. Na/K-ATPase activity was 3.98 μmol ADP/mg protein/hour in the gills of control individuals maintained at 28 ppt for the experimental duration. Levels increased in individuals exposed to 18 ppt, 7 ppt and 3 ppt for 7 days to 5.06, 6.51, and 5.81 μmol ADP/mg protein/hour, respectively. Based on the above, it is suggested that L. vannamei could not survive in low salinity (< 1 ppt) due to the loss of osmoregulatory capacity when the shrimps were transferred directly from high salinities to low salinities. © 2010 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved. Source


Efendi,University of Syiah Kuala | Matsuoka M.,Japan International Research Center for Agriculture Science
Asian Journal of Plant Sciences | Year: 2011

Investigation of transformation method for sugarcane was carried out by using Agrobacterium tumefaciens with two promoters (CaMV35S and RUBQ2). Embryogenic callus and suspension culture were sonicated and co-cultured with Agrobacterium tumefaciens. The transformed cells were analyzed for the distribution of GUS activity histochemically. The transformed calli derived from the NiF4, Ni9 and NCo310 cultivars had the blue coloration in its tissue. Thus, the gene for GUS appeared to have been transferred and to be expressed in the calli. The RUBQ2 promoter significantly enhanced the efficiency of sugarcane transformation. When using suspension culture, the proportion of the calli showing transient GUS expression was 4.7-fold greater with the RUBQ2 than with the CaMV35S promoter. Additionally, when transforming embryogenic callus with Agrobacterium harbored RUBQ2, we also successfully produced transformed calli with higher level of transient GUS expression, 12.1-fold greater with the RUBQ2 than with the CaMV35S promoter. This result showed that the embryogenic callus was more competent for transfer of T-DNA into sugarcane cells. Therefore, the results of GUS activity demonstrated that the RUBQ2 promoter can work for an effective regulatory element to generate strong expression in callus of sugarcane. © 2011 Asian Network for Scientific Information. Source

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