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Kamijo T.,Japan International Cooperation Agency | Huang G.,Sophia University
Impact Assessment and Project Appraisal | Year: 2016

This study examined the key factors for improving the quality of environmental impact assessment reports through statistical tests and path analysis. The Lee-Colley review package was used to review the quality of the samples of 120 reports prepared by the Japan International Cooperation Agency dating from 2001 to 2012. The result of the study showed that alternatives analysis and public involvement could be key factors for improving the quality of reports. When the number of public involvement stages went up, the number of evaluation criteria for alternatives analysis showed an increasing trend and the quality of the reports improved. Finally, the study pointed out the effectiveness of alternatives analysis with a wide range of evaluation criteria and public involvement for improving the quality of reports. Further research is needed to explore alternatives analysis and public involvement in more depth as well as to improve the effectiveness of their linkage via more case studies. © 2016 IAIA Source


Frank R.G.,Harvard University | Nakatani Y.,World Health Organization | Fukuda Y.,Japan International Cooperation Agency
Psychiatric Services | Year: 2013

In April 2013 Japan designated mental disorders as the fifth "priority disease" for national medical services, after cancer, stroke, acute myocardial infarction, and diabetes. All prefectures will be required to assess local mental health needs and develop necessary service components. This column provides an overview of the Regional Health Care Strategic Plan in the context of mental health and welfare reforms. The goals of the plan are to alter the balance between institutional and community-based care for patients with severe and persistent mental disorders, integrate general medical and mental health care, and support greater independence for people with mental disorders. It is a political challenge for Japan to reallocate resources to rebalance care services while maintaining free access to care. Source


Dube C.,Mumbwa District Health Office | Hayakawa T.,Japan International Cooperation Agency | Yamada N.,Research Institute of Tuberculosis | Simpungwe J.B.,Clinical Care and Diagnostics Services
Bulletin of the World Health Organization | Year: 2010

Problem: Despite the Government's effort to expand services to district level, it is still hard for people living with HIV to access antiretroviral treatment (ART) in rural Zambia. Strong demands for expanding ART services at the rural health centre level face challenges of resource shortages. Approach: The Mumbwa district health management team introduced mobile ART services using human resources and technical support from district hospitals, and community involvement at four rural health centres in the first quarter of 2007. This paper discusses the uptake of the mobile ART services in rural Mumbwa. Local setting: Mumbwa is a rural district with an area of 23 000 km2 and a population of 167 000. Before the introduction of mobile services, ART services were provided only at Mumbwa District Hospital. Relevant changes: The mobile services improved accessibility to ART, especially for clients in better functional status, i.e. still able to work. In addition, these mobile services may reduce the number of cases "lost to follow-up". This might be due to the closer involvement of the community and the better support offered by these services to rural clients. Lessons learnt: These mobile ART services helped expand services to rural health facilities where resources are limited, bringing them as close as possible to where clients live. Source


Kawanishi M.,Japan International Cooperation Agency | Mimura N.,Ibaraki University
Climate and Development | Year: 2015

The present study demonstrated the importance of designing insurance as a part of broader risk management, using pilot insurance for rice farmers in East Java, Indonesia, as a case. An independent-sample t-test, using historical data on the areas of monthly rice harvest failure at regency level for the recent 10 years, finds that harvest failure during the rainy seasons in a group of the regencies located in the Bengawan Solo River Basin is significantly greater than the other group consisting of the remaining regencies in the province. This is due to frequent floods, which are largely attributed to the declining function of the Wonogiri reservoir as the primary flood control facility. It suggests the necessity of risk prevention measures, such as those to pump out dead storage and upgrade spillway capacity, to allow insurance to work in the basin. The present study also investigated a feasibility of weather index insurance. It compares the correlation coefficients and statistical significance of monthly rice harvest failure between 29 regencies in the province on one hand, and those of monthly rainfall on the other. It finds that rice harvest failure has higher spatial dependency than rainfall, indicating a potential problem of a basis risk. © 2014 Taylor & Francis. Source


Yoshioka K.,Japan International Cooperation Agency
Memorias do Instituto Oswaldo Cruz | Year: 2013

Chagas disease control requires an innovative approach to strengthen community participation in vector surveillance. This paper presents a case study of a community-based bug-hunting campaign in Guatemala. The campaign was implemented in 2007 in the following three stages: (i) a four week preparation stage to promote bug-hunting, (ii) a one week bug-hunting stage to capture and collect bugs and (iii) a 10 week follow-up stage to analyse the bugs and spray insecticide. A total of 2,845 bugs were reported, of which 7% were Triatominae vectors, such as Rhodnius prolixus and Triatoma dimidiata. The bug-hunting campaign detected a five-six-fold higher amount of vectors in one week than traditional community-based surveillance detects in one year. The bug-hunting campaign effectively detected vectors during a short period, provided information to update the vector infestation map and increased community and political awareness regarding Chagas disease. This approach could be recommended as an effective and feasible strategy to strengthen vector surveillance on a larger scale. Source

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