Arakawa H.,Japan Institute of Sports science
Journal of applied biomechanics | Year: 2013
The current study aimed to investigate the effect of ankle restriction on the coordination of vertical jumping and discuss the influence of energy transfer through m. gastrocnemius on the multijoint movement. Eight participants performed two types of vertical jumps: a normal squat jump, and a squat jump with restricted ankle joint movement. Mechanical outputs were calculated using an inverse dynamics analysis. Custom-made shoes were used to restrict plantar flexion, resulting in significantly (P < .001) reduced maximum power and work at the ankle joint to below 2% and 3%, while maintaining natural range of motion at the hip and knee. Based on the comparison between the two types of jumps, we determined that the ankle restriction increased (P < .001) the power (827 ± 346 W vs. 1276 ± 326 W) and work (92 ± 34 J vs. 144 ± 36 J) at the knee joint. A large part of the enhanced output at the knee is assumed to be due to ankle restriction, which results in the nullification of energy transport via m. gastrocnemius; that is, reduced contribution of the energy transfer with ankle restriction appeared as augmentation at the knee joint.
Osawa T.,Japan Institute of Sports science
Advances in experimental medicine and biology | Year: 2013
To examine the hypothesis that the relationship between minute ventilation (VE) and deoxygenation from the intercostal space (IC) would be steady regardless of exercise protocols, if an increase in O2 consumption of the accessory respiratory muscles with an increase of VE brings about deoxygenation in IC, we measured the relationship between VE and O2 saturation in IC (SO2IC) during a constant-load exercise test (CET), and the relationship was compared with that during a ramp incremental exercise test (RIET). Six male subjects performed RIET. On a different day, the subjects performed a moderate and heavy CET (CET_MOD and CET_HVY, respectively). SO2IC decreased from the start of both CET_MOD and CET_HVY and changed little from 2 min. Moreover, SO2IC was significantly lower during CET_HVY than during CET_MOD. In comparison between RIET and CET_HVY at the similar VE level, SO2IC was significantly higher during CET_HVY than RIET. These results suggest that the decrease in SO2IC was caused not only by an increase in O2 consumption in IC with an increase in VE but also by a decrease in O2 supply.
Kawamori N.,Edith Cowan University |
Kawamori N.,Japan Institute of Sports science |
Nosaka K.,Edith Cowan University |
Newton R.U.,Edith Cowan University
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2013
Kawamori, N, Nosaka, K, and Newton, RU. Relationships between ground reaction impulse and sprint acceleration performance in team sport athletes. J Strength Cond Res 27(3): 568-573, 2013-Large horizontal acceleration in short sprints is a critical performance parameter for many team sport athletes. It is often stated that producing large horizontal impulse at each ground contact is essential for high short sprint performance, but the optimal pattern of horizontal and vertical impulses is not well understood, especially when the sprints are initiated from a standing start. This study was an investigation of the relationships between ground reaction impulses and sprint acceleration performance from a standing start in team sport athletes. Thirty physically active young men with team sport background performed 10-m sprint from a standing start, whereas sprint time and ground reaction forces were recorded during the first ground contact and at 8 m from the start. Associations between sprint time and ground reaction impulses (normalized to body mass) were determined by a Pearson's correlation coefficient (r) analysis. The 10-m sprint time was significantly (p < 0.01) correlated with net horizontal impulse (r = 20.52) and propulsive impulse (r = 20.66) measured at 8 m from the start. No significant correlations were found between sprint time and impulses recorded during the first ground contact after the start. These results suggest that applying ground reaction impulse in a more horizontal direction is important for sprint acceleration from a standing start. This is consistent with the hypothesis of training to increase net horizontal impulse production using sled towing or using elastic resistance devices, which needs to be validated by future longitudinal training studies. © 2013 National Strength and Conditioning Association.
Harrison C.B.,University of Auckland |
Gill N.D.,University of Auckland |
Kinugasa T.,Japan Institute of Sports science |
Kilding A.E.,University of Auckland
Sports Medicine | Year: 2015
The importance of a high level of aerobic fitness for team sport players is well known. Previous research suggests that aerobic fitness can be effectively increased in adults using traditional aerobic conditioning methods, including high-intensity interval and moderate-intensity continuous training, or more recent game-based conditioning that involves movement and skill-specific tasks, e.g. small-sided games. However, aerobic fitness training for youth team sport players has received limited attention and is likely to differ from that for adults due to changes in maturation. Given young athletes experience different rates of maturation and technical skill development, the most appropriate aerobic fitness training modes and loading parameters are likely to be specific to the developmental stage of a player. Therefore, we analysed studies that investigated exercise protocols to enhance aerobic fitness in young athletes, relative to growth and maturation, to determine current best practice and limitations. Findings were subsequently used to guide an evidence-based model for aerobic fitness development. During the sampling stage (exploration of multiple sports), regular participation in moderate-intensity aerobic fitness training, integrated into sport-specific drills, activities and skill-based games, is recommended. During the specialisation stage (increased commitment to a chosen sport), high-intensity small-sided games should be prioritised to provide the simultaneous development of aerobic fitness and technical skills. Once players enter the investment stage (pursuit of proficiency in a chosen sport), a combination of small-sided games and high-intensity interval training is recommended. © 2015, Springer International Publishing Switzerland.
Hirayama K.,Waseda University |
Hirayama K.,Japan Institute of Sports science
Journal of Strength and Conditioning Research | Year: 2014
The purpose of this study was to examine the acute effects of an ascending intensity squat protocol consisting of single-repetition exercises on subsequent vertical jump performance. Fourteen college weightlifters attended 2 testing sessions: squat (SQ) and control (CON) conditions. In the SQ condition, squat exercises with incremental loads (20% 1 repetition maximum [RM], 40% 1RM, 60% 1RM, 80% 1RM, and maximal isometric [MI] half-squat exercise) were performed with a time interval of 3 minutes after submaximal cycling and static stretching. Maximum vertical jump height was measured at the beginning of the session and after cycling, static stretching, and each squat exercise in the SQ condition. In the CON condition, vertical jump height was measured at the same times with the subject resting on a chair after cycling and stretching. Vertical jump height gradually increased after 60% 1RM, 80% 1RM, and MI half-squat exercises compared with baseline values (i.e., first trial of vertical jump), whereas no change was observed in the CON condition. These results suggest that an ascending intensity squat protocol consisting of single-repetition exercises of sufficient intensity can be useful for athletes who require high muscular power. © 2014 National Strength and Conditioning Association.