Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences

Aomori Shi, Japan

Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences

Aomori Shi, Japan

Time filter

Source Type

Abe N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Kimata I.,Osaka City University
Vector-Borne and Zoonotic Diseases | Year: 2010

Enterocytozoon bieneusi is an emerging and clinically significant enteric human pathogen that is mainly associated with chronic diarrhea. It has been identified in a variety of wild, domestic, and companion mammals and birds. This pathogen is genetically diverse and is composed of over 80 host-specific and zoonotic genotypes. Pigs are considered one of the main reservoirs of this pathogen given its high reported prevalence in pigs, and pigs may harbor zoonotic and pig-specific genotypes. Therefore, genotyping of isolates from pigs and other animals is essential for the control of E. bieneusi infection. In Japan, it remains unclear whether this pathogen is present in the porcine population. In the present study, we examined 30 fecal samples from pigs reared on 6 farms in western Japan. Ten pigs (33%) were found to be positive when assessed by polymerase chain reaction. The genotypes were varied and were found to be animal specific (EbpA, H, PigEBITS5) and zoonotic (D, EbpC) in genotype. The observation that pigs in Japan appear to be infected with zoonotic and animal genotypes of E. bieneusi raises questions about the prevalence of this infection among the human population in Japan. © 2010, Mary Ann Liebert, Inc.


Yamazaki K.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Biological Journal of the Linnean Society | Year: 2011

Plants employ various defensive tactics against herbivores but are rarely considered to use rapid movements to resist predation. However, the aboveground parts of plants are often forcefully moved by wind and rain. This passive movement has been overlooked as an anti-herbivore trait. The leaves of many plant species, such as aspens, Indian sacred fig, bamboos, and palms, tremble even in a slight breeze. Leaves that are easily moved by gentle winds can sometimes resist strong winds and may have other benefits as well. In the present study, it is proposed that the movement of such plant leaves physically deters arthropod herbivory and pathogen infection by repelling colonization and oviposition by herbivorous insects. This leads to herbivores and pathogens being dislodged from the plants, and the ensuing death of the herbivores on the ground or at least their recolonization to other plants, as well as the interruption of feeding, intraspecific communication and the mating behaviour of herbivores, thus lowering their performance on the plant or increasing enemy attack of the herbivores. In addition, passive leaf movements may undermine herbivore camouflage and expose them to predation, and may also allow plant volatiles to diffuse efficiently to repel herbivores and attract natural enemies. Thus, the mechanistic properties of these leaves may have anti-herbivore effects in the wind and rain. This hypothesis can also be applied to aquatic plants that tremble in gentle water currents. In addition, genetic manipulation of the tendency for leaf movement may be beneficial for the management of pest insects and pathogens with reduced pesticides in forestry and agriculture. © 2011 The Linnean Society of London.


Smolders E.,Catholic University of Leuven | Tsukada H.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Integrated Environmental Assessment and Management | Year: 2011

The recent events at the Fukushima Daiichi nuclear power plant, Japan, have raised questions about radiocesium (137Cs) transfer from soil to agricultural plants. This transfer has been studied extensively in Europe following the Chernobyl accident, in Soviet Ukraine in 1986. This article briefly discusses whether that transfer may be different in Japan in the aftermath of the Fukushima accident. © 2011 SETAC.


Ishioka T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Cell biology international | Year: 2011

RSV (respiratory syncytial virus)-induced pneumonia and bronchiolitis may be associated with hyperresponsive conditions, including asthma. Eosinophilic proteins such as MBP (major basic protein) may also be associated with the pathophysiology of asthma. To elucidate the roles of RSV infection and MBP in the pathogenesis of pneumonia with hyperresponsiveness, we investigated the effects of RSV infection and MBP on A549 (alveolar epithelial) cells. CPE (cytopathic effects) in A549 cells were observed by microscopy. Apoptosis and cell death was evaluated by flow cytometric analysis and modified MTT [3-(4,5-dimethylthiazol-2-yl)-2,5-diphenyltetrazolium bromide] assay. We also measured 15 types of cytokines and chemokines in A549 cell supernatants. Although RSV alone did not affect the CPE of A549, high concentrations of MBP resulted in cell death within 24 h. Combinations of RSV and MBP synergistically induced cell death. In A549 cells infected with RSV alone, the release of GM-CSF (granulocyte-macrophage colony-stimulating factor) was significantly enhanced compared with control cells (no infection). In the cells treated with MBP alone, the production of IL (interleukin)-2, 4, 5, 7, 10, 12, 13, 17, IFN (interferon)-γ, GM-CSF, G-CSF (granulocyte colony-stimulating factor) and MIP (macrophage inflammatory protein)-1β was significantly increased compared with control cells. Notably, the levels of GM-CSF and IL-17 in RSV/MBP-treated cells were significantly higher than those treated with MBP alone. These results suggest that MBP synergistically enhanced the release of various cytokines/chemokines and the cell death of RSV-infected A549 cells, indicating that MBP may be closely associated with the pathophysiology of allergic reactions in bronchiolitis/pneumonia due to RSV.


Abe N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Matsubara K.,Banquet Animal Hospital
Veterinary Parasitology | Year: 2015

The Cryptosporidium horse genotype, a zoonotic protozoan parasite first found in a Prezewalski wild horse, has not been found in any other mammal but calves, horses, and humans. Hedgehogs, popular exotic pet animals in Japan, are a reservoir of two zoonotic Cryptosporidum: C. parvum and C. erinacei (previously known as the hedgehog genotype). Recently, after finding Cryptosporidium infection in a four-toed hedgehog (Atelerix albiventris), we identified the isolate genetically as the Cryptosporidium horse genotype. Its subtype (VIbA13) was the same as that of an isolate from a pet shop employee with severe clinical symptoms, as reported previously from sequencing analysis of the partial Cryptosporidum 60. kDa glycoprotein gene sequence. The occurrence of this genotype in hedgehog indicates that the horse genotype has broad host specificity. This report is the first of a study identifying isolates from pet reptiles genetically in Japan. The study identified a new host (Teratoscincus scincus) in C. serpentis lizard genotype by sequencing analysis of partial SSU rRNA and actin genes. © 2015 Elsevier B.V.


Yamazaki K.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Entomological Science | Year: 2012

Seasonal relationships among stranded wrack quantity, seaweed fly abundances, and parasitism at the pupal stage were studied along three sandy beaches in central Japan. The seasonal occurrence patterns of puparia of seaweed flies Coelopa frigida and Fucellia spp. generally corresponded to seaweed deposition, which peaked in May-July and October-December. Parasitoids use fly puparia in these seasons. However, the occurrence of seaweed flies and their parasitoids varied among the three sandy beaches and did not correspond to the wrack amounts. These findings suggest that populations of seaweed flies and their parasitoids are seasonally, but not spatially, regulated by bottom-up processes. The parasitoid assemblage of fly puparia was composed of two Aleochara (Coleoptera: Staphylinidae), two Trichopria (Hymenoptera: Diapriidae), and five pteromalid species (Hymenoptera), but the rate of parasitism was less than 20% and might have had little effect on fly populations. © 2011 The Entomological Society of Japan.


Yamamoto S.P.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Kaida A.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Kubo H.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Iritani N.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Emerging Infectious Diseases | Year: 2014

Rotavirus A (RVA) genotype G1P[8], a hallmark of the Wa-like strain, typically contains only genotype 1 genes. However, an unusual RVA G1P[8] with genotype 2 genes was recently detected in Japan. We determined the complete genomic constellation of this RVA. Our findings suggest that mixed RVAs may be more competitive than once thought.


Anezaki K.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Nakano T.,Osaka University
Environmental Science and Pollution Research | Year: 2014

The concentration levels and congener profiles of polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), pentachlorobenzene (PeCBz), and hexachlorobenzene (HxCBz) were assessed in commercially available organic pigments. Among the azo-type pigments tested, PCB-11, which is synthesized from 3,3′-dichlorobendizine, and PCB-52, which is synthesized from 2,2′,5,5′-tetrachlorobendizine, were the major congeners detected. It is speculated that these were byproducts of chlorobendizine, which has a very similar structure. The total PCB concentrations in this type of pigment ranged from 0.0070 to 740 mg/kg. Among the phthalocyanine-type pigments, highly chlorinated PCBs, mainly composed of PCB-209, PeCBz, and HxCBz were detected. Their concentration levels ranged from 0.011 to 2.5 mg/kg, 0.0035 to 8.4 mg/kg, and 0.027 to 75 mg/kg, respectively. It is suggested that PeCBz and HxCBz were formed as byproducts and converted into PCBs at the time of synthesizing the phthalocyanine green. For the polycyclic-type pigments that were assessed, a distinctive PCB congener profile was detected that suggested an impact of their raw materials and the organic solvent used in the pigment synthesis. PCB pollution from PCB-11, PCB-52, and PCB-209 pigments is of particular concern; therefore, the monthly variations in atmospheric concentrations of these pollutants were measured in an urban area (Sapporo city) and an industrial area (Muroran city). The study detected a certain level of PCB-11, which is not included in PCB technical mixtures, and revealed continuing PCB pollution originating from pigments in the ambient air. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.


Sanchez-Bayo F.,University of Sydney | Goka K.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
PLoS ONE | Year: 2014

Bees are essential pollinators of many plants in natural ecosystems and agricultural crops alike. In recent years the decline and disappearance of bee species in the wild and the collapse of honey bee colonies have concerned ecologists and apiculturalists, who search for causes and solutions to this problem. Whilst biological factors such as viral diseases, mite and parasite infections are undoubtedly involved, it is also evident that pesticides applied to agricultural crops have a negative impact on bees. Most risk assessments have focused on direct acute exposure of bees to agrochemicals from spray drift. However, the large number of pesticide residues found in pollen and honey demand a thorough evaluation of all residual compounds so as to identify those of highest risk to bees. Using data from recent residue surveys and toxicity of pesticides to honey and bumble bees, a comprehensive evaluation of risks under current exposure conditions is presented here. Standard risk assessments are complemented with new approaches that take into account time-cumulative effects over time, especially with dietary exposures. Whilst overall risks appear to be low, our analysis indicates that residues of pyrethroid and neonicotinoid insecticides pose the highest risk by contact exposure of bees with contaminated pollen. However, the synergism of ergosterol inhibiting fungicides with those two classes of insecticides results in much higher risks in spite of the low prevalence of their combined residues. Risks by ingestion of contaminated pollen and honey are of some concern for systemic insecticides, particularly imidacloprid and thiamethoxam, chlorpyrifos and the mixtures of cyhalothrin and ergosterol inhibiting fungicides. More attention should be paid to specific residue mixtures that may result in synergistic toxicity to bees. © 2014 Sanchez-Bayo, Goka.


Yamazaki K.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Oikos | Year: 2010

Leaf-mining insects produce conspicuous and distinct leaf mines on various types of plant leaves. The diversity of leaf-mine morphology has typically been explained by several factors, such as selective feeding on plant tissues, improvement of microclimate, faecal disposal, reduction in the efficiency of parasitoid search behaviour and leafminer phylogeny. Although these factors are certainly associated with mining patterns, masking the mines, rather than making them conspicuous, appears to be more advantageous for deterring parasitoids and predators of leafminers. However, here, I propose that prominent leaf mines may serve to signal or cue herbivores to avoid feeding on the mined leaves. Because most leafminers are sessile and complete their development within a single leaf, herbivory of mined leaves is detrimental to leafminer survival. Other herbivores appear to avoid consuming mined leaves for a variety of reasons: leaf mines mimic leaf variegation or mottling; mined leaves induce chemical and physical defences against herbivores; and leaf mines mimic fungal infection, animal excrement, and necrosed plant tissues. Hence, natural selection may have favoured leafminers that produce conspicuous mines because of the increased survival and fecundity of thereby reducing herbivory on mined leaves. © 2009 The Author.

Loading Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences collaborators
Loading Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences collaborators