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Sugita-Konishi Y.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Sato T.,Kitasato University | Saito S.,Kitasato University | Nakajima M.,11 Health | And 9 more authors.
Food Additives and Contaminants - Part A Chemistry, Analysis, Control, Exposure and Risk Assessment | Year: 2010

The intake of total aflatoxins (AFT) and aflatoxin B1 (AFB1) from food in Japan was estimated from AFT and AFB1 concentration and frequency data in 24 foods (884 samples) from a 3-year retail market survey from the summer of 2004 to the winter of 2006, and by food consumption data from the National Health and Nutrition Survey performed in 2005. The AFT and AFB1 survey revealed that peanut, peanut products, cocoa, chocolate, pistachio, white pepper, red pepper, almond, job's tears, buckwheat and corn grits are considered to be contributors of AFT (or AFB1) intake in Japan (maximum AFB1 (AFT) levels ranged from 0.21 to 28.0 μg kg-1 (from 0.21 to 9.0 μg kg-1)) in AFT-contaminated food. A probabilistic approach using the Monte Carlo method was carried out to simulate an estimate of the AFT (or AFB1) intake distributions in each age group in Japan. In this study, AFB1 intake ranged from 0.003 to 0.004 ng kg-1 body weightday-1 (from lower to upper limits), and the potential risk for cancer using a formula devised by the Joint Food and Agricultural Organization/ World Health Organization (FAO/WHO) Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA) was estimated at 0.00004-0.00005 person/year/100,000 persons, even though this was in the higher levels (95.0th percentile) of the consumer population. The results suggest that the current dietary intake of AFB1 in Japan has no appreciable effect on health. © 2010 Taylor & Francis. Source

Todoriki S.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Kameya H.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Naito S.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Kimura K.,Japan National Food Research Institute | And 8 more authors.
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2013

Barley grown in test fields and harvested in June 2011 was roasted and brewed. The translocation of radioactive cesium from roasted barley to tea was examined at various brewing times. Roasted barley was boiled for 5 min at a ratio of 1.5 L water: 50 g grain, and allowed to brew for 5, 60 and 120 minutes. The concentration of radioactive cesium (134Cs and 137Cs) in the barley tea and residual grain were determined by gamma-ray spectrometry with Gesemiconductor detector. The translocation of radioactive cesium from roasted barley (138 Bq/kg) to tea extract was about 38% at 120 minute extraction and the radioactive cesium concentration of the barley tea was 1.83 Bq/kg. Thus, it was confirmed that even when 100 Bq/kg barley was used as an ingredient, the radioactive cesium concentration of barley tea made with the standard formula was much lower than 10 Bq/kg, the standard limit for water and drinks. Source

Kameya H.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Hagiwara S.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Nei D.,Japan National Food Research Institute | Kakihara Y.,Japan Grain Inspection Association | And 4 more authors.
Nippon Shokuhin Kagaku Kogaku Kaishi | Year: 2011

The shielding of radiation in the environment after the Fukushima Daiichi Nuclear Power Plant accident were examined for the detection of a low level of radioactive cesium in food samples by using a NaI (Tl) scintillation survey meter. The reduction of the environmental radiation with different thickness of lead shield was demonstrated in a laboratory in the Tsukuba City. To detect the low level of radioactive cesium ( 131Cs and 134Cs) in barley samples, the conditions in terms of the shielding and the geometry of sample and scintillation probe were designed. Under the appropriate shielding conditions, a linear correlation between the concentration of 131Cs and 134Cs (Bq/kg) and the net counting rate (cps) of the NaI(Tl) scintillation survey meter was confirmed. Source

Aoyama K.,Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center | Akashi H.,Nisshin Seifun Group Inc. | Mochizuki N.,Asahi Breweries Ltd. | Ito Y.,Kirin Group Office Co. | And 15 more authors.
Journal of the Food Hygienic Society of Japan | Year: 2012

To evaluate LC methods with UV or MS detection for simultaneous analysis of deoxynivalenol (DON) and nivalenol (NIV) in wheat, an interlaboratory study was conducted in 11 laboratories. DON and NIV were purified using a multifunctional column, and their concentrations were determined using LC-UV or LC-MS(/MS). No internal standards were used. Three fortified wheat samples (0.1, 0.5 and 1 mg/kg), one naturally contaminated wheat sample, and one blank wheat sample were used. The recoveries ranged from 90% to 110% for DON and from 76% to 83% for NIV. For DON, the relative standard deviations for repeatability (RSDr) ranged from 1.1% to 7.6%. The relative standard deviations for reproducibility (RSDr) ranged from 7.2% to 25.2%. For NIV, the RSDr ranged from 2.0% to 10.7%, and the RSDr ranged from 7.0% to 31.4%. Regardless of sample and detector, the HorRat values for DON and NIV ranged from 0.4 to 1.4. Both LC-UV and LC-MS(/MS) methods were considered to be suitable for application as an official method. Source

Aoyama K.,Food and Agricultural Materials Inspection Center | Nakajima M.,11 Health | Tabata S.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | Eiichi I.,Japan Food Research Laboratories | And 15 more authors.
Journal of Food Protection | Year: 2010

Between 2004 and 2007 we examined foods from Japanese retail shops for contamination with ochratoxin A (OTA) and fumonisins B1, B 2. and B3. A total of 1.358 samples of 27 different products were examined for OTA, and 831 samples of 16 different products were examined for fumonisins, The limits of quantification ranged from 0.01 to 0.5 μg/kg for OTA and 2 to 10 μg/kg for the fumonisins. OTA was detected in amounts higher than limits of quantification in wheat flour, pasta, oatmeal, rye, buckwheat flour and dried buckwheat noodles, raisins, wine, beer, coffee beans and coffee products, chocolate, cocoa, and coriander. OTA was found in more than 90% of the samples of instant coffee and cocoa, and the highest concentration of OTA, 12.5 μg/kg, was detected in raisins. The concentration of OTA in oatmeal, rye, raisins, wine, and roasted coffee beans varied remarkably from year to year. Fumonisins were detected in frozen and canned com, popcorn grain, com grits, cornflakes, com soups, com snacks, beer, soybeans, millet, and asparagus. The highest concentrations of fumonisins B1, B2. and B3 were detected in com grits (1.670, 597. and 281 μg/kg, respectively). All of the samples of com grits were contaminated with fumonisins, and more than 80% of the samples of popcorn grain and com snacks contained fumonisins. OTA and fumonisins were detected in several food products in Japan; however, although Japan has not set regulatory levels for these mycotoxins, their concentrations were relatively low. Copyright ©, International Association for Food Protection. Source

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