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Nanri A.,International Clinical Research Center | Mizoue T.,International Clinical Research Center | Noda M.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Takahashi Y.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | And 3 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2010

Background: Refined carbohydrates have been suggested to deteriorate glucose metabolism; however, whether persons with elevated intakes of white rice, which is a major staple food for the Japanese, experience increased risk of developing type 2 diabetes remains unclear. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between white rice intake and risk of type 2 diabetes. Design: Participants were 25,666 men and 33,622 women aged 45-75 y who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and who had no prior history of diabetes. We ascertained food intake by using a validated 147-item food-frequency questionnaire. Odds ratios of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 y were estimated by using logistic regressions. Results: A total of 1103 new cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. There was a significant association between rice intake and an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in women; the multivariate-adjusted odds ratio for the highest compared with lowest quartiles of rice intake was 1.65 (95% CI: 1.06, 2.57; P for trend = 0.005). In men, the association was unclear, although there was a suggestion of a positive association in persons who were not engaged in strenuous physical activity (P for trend = 0.08). Conclusions: Elevated intake of white rice is associated with an increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese women. The finding that is suggestive of a positive association of rice intake in physically inactive men deserves further investigation. © 2010 American Society for Nutrition.


Nanri A.,International Clinical Research Center | Mizoue T.,International Clinical Research Center | Noda M.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Takahashi Y.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | And 6 more authors.
American Journal of Clinical Nutrition | Year: 2011

Background: Although fish intake can improve glucose metabolism, results of some prospective studies in Western populations suggest potential adverse effects of environmental contaminants in fish on type 2 diabetes risk. However, data from populations with high fish consumption are scarce. Objective: We prospectively investigated the association between fish intake and type 2 diabetes risk in Japanese adults. Design: The participants were 22,921 men and 29,759 women aged 45-75 y who completed a questionnaire of the second survey for the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and who had no history of diabetes. Diet was ascertained by using a 147-item food-frequency questionnaire. ORs of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 y were estimated by using logistic regression. Results: During the 5-y period, 971 new cases (572 men and 399 women) of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. In men, fish intake was significantly associated with a decreased risk of type 2 diabetes; multivariable-adjusted ORs of type 2 diabetes for the highest compared with the lowest quartile of intake were 0.73 (95% CI: 0.54, 1.00; P-trend = 0.04) for total fish and seafood and 0.68 (95% CI: 0.50, 0.92; P-trend = 0.016) for small and medium fish (horse mackerel and sardine, saury and mackerel, and eel). Additional analysis by fat content of fish did not detect any significant association for each category. In women, fish intake was not appreciably associated with type 2 diabetes risk. Conclusion: In a population with high fish and seafood intake, fish consumption was associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes in men but not in women. © 2011 American Society for Nutrition.


Oba S.,Japan National Institute of Public Health | Noda M.,Diabetes Research Center | Waki K.,University of Tokyo | Nanri A.,International Clinical Research Center | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2012

Objective: The effect of smoking cessation on the risk of diabetes has been reported previously. However, it is unknown whether the association is influenced by weight gain and other potential risk factors. Methods: The Japan Public Health Center-Based Prospective Study established in 1990 for Cohort I and in 1993 for Cohort II provided data, and 25,875 men and 33,959 women were analyzed. The response rate to the baseline questionnaire was 80.9%, and 68.4% of the respondents participated both the 5- and 10-year follow-up surveys. Smoking cessation was noted during the initial five years and the development of diabetes was reported in the subsequent five years. Results: An increased risk was observed among individuals who newly quit smoking compared with never smokers among men (odds ratio (OR) = 1.42, 95% CI = 1.03-1.94) and women (OR = 2.84, CI = 1.53-5.29). The risk of developing diabetes among male new quitters who gained 3 kg or more during the 5-year follow-up did not substantially differ from the risk among male never smokers with less than 3 kg of weight gain or no weight gain, while an increased risk was observed among male new quitters with less or no weight gain (OR = 1.46, 95%CI 1.00-2.14). An insignificant increased risk was observed among male new quitters with a family history of diabetes compared with male never smokers with a family history of diabetes. The risk was more than twice as high for male new quitters who used to smoke 25 or more cigarettes per day compared with never smokers (OR = 2.15, 95%CI: 1.34-3.47). Discussion: An increased risk of diabetes was implied among individuals who quit smoking. However, the increased risk was not implied among those who gained weight over the 5-years of follow-up. Those who had major risk factors for diabetes or who smoked heavier had a higher risk. © 2012 Oba et al.


Kurotani K.,International Clinical Research Center | Nanri A.,International Clinical Research Center | Goto A.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Mizoue T.,International Clinical Research Center | And 4 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

Vegetable and fruit intake has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and CVD, but its relationship to the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between vegetable and fruit intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 21Â 269 men and 27Â 168 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no history of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Intake of vegetables and fruit was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years was estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 896 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intake of vegetables and fruit combined or fruit only was not associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, there was an approximately 20Â %, albeit not statistically significant, risk reduction associated with vegetables (men only), green leafy vegetables (men and women) and cruciferous vegetables (men only). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among obese or smoking men than non-obese or non-smoking men. In conclusion, although a small beneficial effect of vegetables, especially green leafy and cruciferous vegetables, cannot be excluded, vegetable and fruit intake may not be appreciably associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes for Japanese adults. © 2012 The Authors.


Kurotani K.,Clinical Research Center | Nanri A.,Clinical Research Center | Goto A.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Mizoue T.,Clinical Research Center | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Nutrition | Year: 2013

The relationship between different types of meat intake and the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between total meat, total red meat, unprocessed red meat, processed meat and poultry intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 27 425 men and 36 424 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study, and had no history of type 2 diabetes, cancer, stroke, IHD, chronic liver disease or kidney disease. Meat intake was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years were estimated using a multiple logistic regression. A total of 1178 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intakes of total meat and total red meat were associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in men but not in women. The multivariate-adjusted OR for the highest quartile compared with the lowest quartile of total meat and total red meat intake were 1·36 (95 % CI 1·07, 1·73; P for trend = 0·006) and 1·48 (95 % CI 1·15, 1·90; P for trend = 0·003) for men, respectively, and 0·82 (95 % CI 0·62, 1·09; P for trend = 0·14) and 0·77 (95 % CI 0·57, 1·02; P for trend = 0·08) for women, respectively. Intakes of processed red meat and poultry were not associated with the increased risk of diabetes in either men or women. In conclusion, elevated intake of red meat is associated with the increased risk of type 2 diabetes in Japanese men but not in women. Copyright © The Authors 2013.


Noda M.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Kato M.,Japan Foundation for the Promotion of International Medical Research Cooperation | Takahashi Y.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Matsushita Y.,National Health Research Institute | And 4 more authors.
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2010

To determine the optimal fasting plasma glucose (FPG) cut-off value which effectively identifies high risk subjects for type 2 diabetes in Japanese, we conducted a population-based prospective study on diabetes as part of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and estimated the 5-year incidence of diabetes. The subjects of the analysis of this study were 2,207 Japanese aged 51-70 at baseline from whom a fasting blood sample was collected in both the baseline and the 5-year follow-up surveys and who completed the questionnaires at both times. Diabetes was defined as an FPG value ≥ 126 mg/dL (7.0 mmol/L) and/or self-reported diabetes. A total of 125 subjects developed diabetes during the 5 years after the baseline survey, and the incidence rate for a baseline FPG value of 95-99, 100-104, 105-109, 110-114, 115-119, and 120-125 mg/dL was 6.1, 11.5, 30.3, 52.6, 86.4, and 115.2 per 1,000 person-years, respectively. The results of receiver operating characteristic curve analysis suggested that an FPG value of 102 mg/dL (5.67 mmol/L) was optimal for predicting diabetes during the next 5-years. The cut-off value was similar in both genders and in the 51- to 60-year-old group and 61- to 70-year-old group. Use of hemoglobin A1c level ≥ 6.1% for an additional diagnostic criterion resulted in a small increment in incidence, but the cut-off value for predicting diabetes was almost the same (101 mg/dL). The results of this study suggested that the cut-off FPG value should be lowered in terms of prediction of type 2 diabetes among Japanese populations.


Nanri A.,Center for Clinical science | Mizoue T.,Center for Clinical science | Poudel-Tandukar K.,Waseda University | Noda M.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | And 6 more authors.
British Journal of Psychiatry | Year: 2013

Background: Although dietary patterns have been linked to depression, a frequently observed precondition for suicide, no study has yet examined the association between dietary patterns and suicide risk. Aims: To prospectively investigate the association between dietary patterns and death from suicide. Method: Participants were 40 752 men and 48 285 women who took part in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Centerbased Prospective Study (1995-1998). Dietary patterns were derived from principal component analysis of the consumption of 134 food and beverage items ascertained by a food frequency questionnaire. Hazard ratios of suicide from the fourth year of follow-up to December 2005 were calculated. Results: Among both men and women, a 'prudent' dietary pattern characterised by a high intake of vegetables, fruits, potatoes, soy products, mushrooms, seaweed and fish was associated with a decreased risk of suicide. The multivariable-adjusted hazard ratio of suicide for the highest v. lowest quartiles of the dietary pattern score was 0.46 (95% CI 0.28-0.75) (P for trend, 0.005). Other dietary patterns (Westernised and traditional Japanese) were not associated with suicide risk. Conclusions: Our findings suggest that a prudent dietary pattern may be associated with a decreased risk of death from suicide.


PubMed | National Center for Global Health and Medicine, International Clinical Research Center, Japan Foundation for the Promotion of International Medical Research Cooperation and Research Center for Cancer Prevention and Screening
Type: Journal Article | Journal: The British journal of nutrition | Year: 2014

Vegetable and fruit intake has been associated with a reduced risk of cancer and CVD, but its relationship to the risk of type 2 diabetes remains unclear. We prospectively examined the association between vegetable and fruit intake and the incidence of type 2 diabetes. Subjects were 21,269 men and 27,168 women aged 45-75 years who participated in the second survey of the Japan Public Health Center-based Prospective Study and had no history of type 2 diabetes or other serious diseases. Intake of vegetables and fruit was estimated using a validated 147-item FFQ. The OR of self-reported, physician-diagnosed type 2 diabetes over 5 years was estimated using multiple logistic regression. A total of 896 newly diagnosed cases of type 2 diabetes were self-reported. Intake of vegetables and fruit combined or fruit only was not associated with a lower risk of type 2 diabetes. However, there was an approximately 20%, albeit not statistically significant, risk reduction associated with vegetables (men only), green leafy vegetables (men and women) and cruciferous vegetables (men only). Such risk reduction was somewhat greater among obese or smoking men than non-obese or non-smoking men. In conclusion, although a small beneficial effect of vegetables, especially green leafy and cruciferous vegetables, cannot be excluded, vegetable and fruit intake may not be appreciably associated with the risk of type 2 diabetes for Japanese adults.


Tanaka T.,National Center for Global Health and Medicine | Tanaka T.,Yokohama City University | Morita A.,National Institute of Health and Nutrition | Kato M.,Japan Foundation for the Promotion of International Medical Research Cooperation | And 5 more authors.
Endocrine Journal | Year: 2011

The prevalence of diabetes is increasing globally. In addition to established risk factors for diabetes, such as diet, inactivity, overweight and obesity, the involvement of persistent organic pollutants, including dioxins and polychlorinated biphenyls (PCBs), has also been suggested to be a possible, but controversial, cause of this epidemic. The present study investigated the association between blood PCB congener levels and the prevalence of diabetes among middle-aged, overweight and obese Japanese participants in the Saku Control Obesity Program. One hundred seventeen participants had their congener-specific PCB levels measured in addition to undergoing routine blood analyses at the time of a medical checkup. Prevalent diabetes was defined according to two methods: definite diabetes was defined as people with an HbA1c level ≥ 6.9% or who were taking medication for diabetes, and all diabetes was defined as people with an HbA1c level ≥ 6.5%, a fasting plasma glucose level ≥ 126 mg/dL, or a history of doctor-diagnosed diabetes. A multiple logistic regression analysis was performed to analyze the association between the PCB levels and the prevalence of diabetes, with adjustments for sex, age, body mass index and total lipids. As a result, PCB 146 and 180 were positively associated and PCB 163/164 and 170 were negatively associated with the prevalence of definite diabetes. The significance of the association of PCB 180 and 163/164 with the prevalence of diabetes persisted regardless of the definition of diabetes or adjustments for total lipids, suggesting the possibility that these parameters may modify the risk of diabetes. © The Japan Endocrine Society.


Kato M.,Japan Foundation for the Promotion of International Medical Research Cooperation | Noda M.,Diabetes Research Center | Suga H.,Omiya Medical Association | Nakamura T.,Omiya Medical Association | And 2 more authors.
Diabetic Medicine | Year: 2012

Aims Using the HbA 1c level to define diabetes has several advantages and these advantages also apply to define a high-risk group. However, the risk of diabetes increases as HbA 1c increases and a certain degree of arbitrariness in the cut-off for the high risk group is unavoidable. The aim of this study was to determine the HbA 1c cut-off for defining a high-risk group that corresponds to the fasting plasma glucose cut-off by comparing the risk of diabetes against the fasting plasma glucose and HbA 1c levels in the Japanese population. Methods A retrospective cohort study was conducted using data from annual health examinations performed in Omiya city. A total of 11271 subjects between the ages of 40 and 79years without diabetes at baseline were followed for up to 7years. According to the new diagnostic criteria, diabetes was defined as an fasting plasma glucose level ≥7mmol/l or an HbA 1c level ≥48mmol/mol (≥6.5%) or a self-report. The HbA 1c cut-off corresponding to the fasting plasma glucose cut-off was determined using the incidence, hazard ratio, and a receiver operating characteristic analysis. Results Eight hundred and sixty subjects developed diabetes. The incidence, hazard ratio, and receiver operating characteristic analysis all indicated that an HbA 1c cut-off of 39mmol/mol (5.7%) corresponded to an fasting plasma glucose level of 5.6mmol/l. Conclusions Our results suggested that the HbA 1c cut-off for high-risk of diabetes should be 39mmol/mol (5.7%), consistent with the American Diabetes Association recommendation. Further research is needed to determine whether our results are applicable to other populations. © 2012 The Authors. Diabetic Medicine © 2012 Diabetes UK.

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