Mirokuji Y.,Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association |
Abe H.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology |
Okamura H.,Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association |
Saito K.,Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association |
And 9 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology
Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (l-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, dl-menthyl octanoate, dl-menthyl palmitate, and dl-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71. μg/person/day and 60-1250. μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800. μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd. Source
Ono A.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
Takahashi M.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
Hirose A.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
Kamata E.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences |
And 8 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology
Most exposure levels of flavor in food are considered to be extremely low. If at all, genotoxic properties should be taken into account in safety evaluations. We have recently established a (quantitative) structure-activity relationship, (Q)SAR, combination system, which is composed of three individual models of mutagenicity prediction for industrial chemicals. A decision on mutagenicity is defined as the combination of predictive results from the three models. To validate the utility of our (Q)SAR system for flavor evaluation, we assessed 367 flavor chemicals that had been evaluated mainly by JECFA and for which Ames test results were available. When two or more models gave a positive evaluation, the sensitivity was low (19.4%). In contrast, when one or more models gave a positive evaluation, the sensitivity increased to 47.2%. The contribution of this increased sensitivity was mainly due to the result of the prediction by Derek for Windows, which is a knowledge-based model. Structural analysis of false negatives indicated some common sub-structures. The approach of improving sub-structural alerts could effectively contribute to increasing the predictability of the mutagenicity of flavors, because many flavors possess categorically similar functional sub-structures or are composed of a series of derivatives. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. Source