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Mirokuji Y.,Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association | Abe H.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Okamura H.,Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association | Saito K.,Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association | And 9 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2014

Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (l-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, dl-menthyl octanoate, dl-menthyl palmitate, and dl-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramer's classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71. μg/person/day and 60-1250. μg/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800. μg/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels. © 2013 Elsevier Ltd.


PubMed | Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology, University of Shizuoka, Japan National Institute of Health Sciences, Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association and 2 more.
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2014

Using the procedure devised by the Joint FAO/WHO Expert Committee on Food Additives (JECFA), we performed safety evaluations on four flavoring substances structurally related to menthol (L-menthyl 2-methylbutyrate, DL-menthyl octanoate, DL-menthyl palmitate, and DL-menthyl stearate) uniquely used in Japan. While no genotoxicity study data were available in the literature, all four substances had no chemical structural alerts predictive of genotoxicity. Moreover, they all four are esters consisting of menthol and simple carboxylic acids that were assumed to be immediately hydrolyzed after ingestion and metabolized into innocuous substances for excretion. As menthol and carboxylic acids have no known genotoxicity, it was judged that the JECFA procedure could be applied to these four substances. According to Cramers classification, these substances were categorized as class I based on their chemical structures. The estimated daily intakes for all four substances were within the range of 1.54-4.71 g/person/day and 60-1250 g/person/day, using the methods of Maximized Survey-Derived Intake and Single Portion Exposure Technique, respectively, based on the annual usage data of 2001, 2005, and 2010 in Japan. As the daily intakes of these substances were below the threshold of concern applied to class I substances viz., 1800 g/person/day, it was concluded that all four substances raise no safety concerns when used for flavoring foods under the currently estimated intake levels.


Ono A.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Takahashi M.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Hirose A.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | Kamata E.,Japan National Institute of Health Sciences | And 8 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2012

Most exposure levels of flavor in food are considered to be extremely low. If at all, genotoxic properties should be taken into account in safety evaluations. We have recently established a (quantitative) structure-activity relationship, (Q)SAR, combination system, which is composed of three individual models of mutagenicity prediction for industrial chemicals. A decision on mutagenicity is defined as the combination of predictive results from the three models. To validate the utility of our (Q)SAR system for flavor evaluation, we assessed 367 flavor chemicals that had been evaluated mainly by JECFA and for which Ames test results were available. When two or more models gave a positive evaluation, the sensitivity was low (19.4%). In contrast, when one or more models gave a positive evaluation, the sensitivity increased to 47.2%. The contribution of this increased sensitivity was mainly due to the result of the prediction by Derek for Windows, which is a knowledge-based model. Structural analysis of false negatives indicated some common sub-structures. The approach of improving sub-structural alerts could effectively contribute to increasing the predictability of the mutagenicity of flavors, because many flavors possess categorically similar functional sub-structures or are composed of a series of derivatives. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.


Hobbs C.A.,Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc. | Taylor S.V.,International Organization of the Flavor Industry | Beevers C.,Covance | Lloyd M.,Covance | And 4 more authors.
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2016

Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential. Perillaldehyde was tested in a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an in vitro micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes, an HPRT assay in mouse lymphoma cells, and a micronucleus/comet assay in Han Wistar rats. In contrast to previously published results, perillaldehyde induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the absence of metabolic activation. The comet assay was negative for duodenum and weakly positive for liver but only at a hepatotoxic dose of perillaldehyde. All other genotoxicity assays were negative. These data do not provide an indication of any genotoxic potential for perillaldehyde, and they provide the primary basis for recent scientific opinions regarding perillaldehyde genotoxicity announced by several international organizations responsible for safety assessment of food additives and flavourings. © 2016 The Authors


PubMed | International Organization of the Flavor Industry, Maronpot Consulting LLC, Integrated Laboratory Systems, Inc., Covance and Japan Flavor and Fragrance Materials Association
Type: | Journal: Food and chemical toxicology : an international journal published for the British Industrial Biological Research Association | Year: 2016

Perillaldehyde, a natural monocyclic terpenoid found most abundantly in the herb perilla, has a long history of use as a flavouring ingredient to add spiciness and citrus taste to foods. Previously, it was judged to be safe by several international expert panels. To confirm the safety of flavourings placed on the European Union list of flavourings, perillaldehyde was selected by the European Food Safety Authority as a representative of a subgroup of alicyclic aldehyde flavouring substances to be evaluated for genotoxic potential. Perillaldehyde was tested in a bacterial reverse mutation assay, an invitro micronucleus assay in human lymphocytes, an HPRT assay in mouse lymphoma cells, and a micronucleus/comet assay in Han Wistar rats. In contrast to previously published results, perillaldehyde induced mutation in Salmonella typhimurium strain TA98 in the absence of metabolic activation. The comet assay was negative for duodenum and weakly positive for liver but only at a hepatotoxic dose of perillaldehyde. All other genotoxicity assays were negative. These data do not provide an indication of any genotoxic potential for perillaldehyde, and they provide the primary basis for recent scientific opinions regarding perillaldehyde genotoxicity announced by several international organizations responsible for safety assessment of food additives and flavourings.

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