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Fujitani Y.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kumar P.,University of Surrey | Tamura K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Fushimi A.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | And 7 more authors.
Science of the Total Environment | Year: 2012

We compared the effect of ambient temperature observed in two different seasons on the size distribution and particle number concentration (PNC) as a function of distance (up to ~250 m) from a major traffic road (25% of the vehicles are heavy-duty diesel vehicles). The modal particle diameter was found between 10 and 30 nm at the roadside in the winter. However, there was no peak for this size range in the summer, even at the roadside. Ambient temperature affects both the atmospheric dilution ratio (DR) and the evaporation rate of particles, thus it affects the decay rate of PNC. We corrected the DR effect in order to focus on the effect of particle evaporation on PNC decay. The decay rate of PNC with DR was found to depend on the season and particle diameter. During the winter, the decay rate for smaller particles (< 30 nm) was much higher (i.e., the concentration decreased significantly against DR), whereas it was low during the summer. In contrast, for particles > 30 nm in diameter, the decay rate was nearly the same during both seasons. This distinction between particles less than or greater than 30 nm in diameter reflects differences in particle volatility properties. Mass-transfer theory was used to estimate evaporation rates of C20-C36 n-alkane particles, which are the major n-alkanes in diesel exhaust particles. The C20-C28 n-alkanes of 30-nm particles completely evaporate at 31.2. °C (summer), and their lifetime is shorter than the transport time of air masses in our region of interest. Absence of the peak at 10-30 nm and the low decay rate of PNC < 30 nm in diameter in the summer were likely due to the evaporation of compounds of similar volatilities comparable to the C20-C36 n-alkanes from particles near the exhaust pipes of vehicles, and complete evaporation of semivolatile materials before they reached the roadside. These results suggest that the lifetime of particles < 30 nm in diameter depends on the ambient temperature, which differs between seasons. This leads us to conclude that these particles show distinctly different spatial distributions depending on the season. © 2012 Elsevier B.V.

Fushimi A.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Saitoh K.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Saitoh K.,Akita | Saitoh K.,Eco Analysis Corporation | And 6 more authors.
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2011

The size distribution of particle number concentrations and comprehensive chemical composition (elemental and organic carbon, elements, ions, and organic compounds) by particle size (diameter: 0.010-10 μm) were measured under no-load and transient conditions in the exhaust from an 8-L diesel engine with no exhaust after-treatment system and from a 3-L diesel vehicle equipped with an oxidation catalyst. High concentrations of nuclei-mode particles were emitted from the 8-L engine under no-load condition (8L-NoLoad), even when low-sulfur (8 ppm) fuel was used, but no nuclei-mode particles were emitted from the 3-L vehicle. Organic carbon accounted for a major part (79-80%) of the measured components of the nanoparticles (diameter: 10-32 nm) under 8L-NoLoad, but elemental carbon accounted for only 8-15%; elements and ions including sulfate accounted for only small percentages. The mass chromatogram (m/. z 85) patterns obtained by gas chromatography-mass spectrometry of the nanoparticles were similar to those for lubricating oil, and the peak profiles for hopanes were equivalent to those in oil. The 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane concentrations per particle mass were higher in smaller particles. The elements concentrated in oil were also concentrated in the nanoparticles. These results suggest that not sulfate and fuel but organics derived from oil were the primary components of the nanoparticles under 8L-NoLoad. From the 17α(H),21β(H)-hopane concentrations, the oil contribution to the sum of measured components in the nanoparticles under 8L-NoLoad was estimated at 79-92%. Comparable oil contributions were estimated from Ca and Zn concentrations. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Hasegawa G.,Kurume University | Hirano M.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center | Ishihara Y.,Kurume University
Inhalation Toxicology | Year: 2011

Epidemiological studies have indicated that exposure to particle matter (PM) increased the risk of respiratory and cardiovascular morbidity and mortality. It is suggested that PM smaller than 2.5 μm in aerodynamic diameter (PM 2.5) may contribute to these responses. However, the molecular mechanism is still unknown. To elucidate the changes in molecular level, we investigated the gene expression profile of concentrated ambient particles (CAPs)-exposed rats. Aged F344 rats were exposed with CAPs (594 μg/m 3) or clean air 4h per day for 3 days, and lung and heart tissues were then excised for DNA microarray analysis. Expression profiles related to inflammation and blood pressure regulation revealed differential expression of 7 genes in the lung and that of 3 genes in the heart ventricle. According to the complement activation-associated genes, complement factor B (Bf), complement component 2 and 4a (C4a), and C1 inhibitor genes were up-regulated in CAPs-exposed rat lung. Bf and C4a genes were also up-regulated in the heart. These suggest the treated animal ready for production of these proteins when activation of complement cascade is required. Pro-inflammatory cytokine, interleukin-1β, was also up-regulated in CAPs-exposed rat lung. Gene related with blood pressure regulation (angiotensin I converting enzyme) was also up-regulated in CAPs-exposed rat lung. Negative regulator of blood pressure (neuropeptide Y) was down-regulated in CAPs-exposed rat heart. These results indicate that CAPs may affect respiratory and cardiovascular organs by activation of inflammatory responses and disintegration of blood pressure regulation in early stage of CAPs exposure. © 2011 Informa Healthcare USA, Inc.

Ban S.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Ban S.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center | Matsuda K.,Tokyo University of Agriculture and Technology | Sato K.,Asia Center for Air Pollution Research | Ohizumi T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

Atmospheric emissions of reactive nitrogen have increased significantly on a global scale due to increases of the use of artificial fertilizer and the burning of fossil fuels. The Asian region has been identified as a high-risk area for nitrogen deposition effects on ecosystems. This paper describes a measurement-based assessment of nitrogen deposition carried out in cooperation with the Acid Deposition Monitoring Network in East Asia (EANET). The investigation aimed to understand the status and variability of dry, wet and total deposition of oxidized and reduced nitrogen over a 10-year period (2003-2012) at 8 remote sites in Japan (Rishiri, Tappi, Sado-seki, Happo, Oki, Yusuhara, Ogasawara and Hedo). Dry deposition amounts were estimated by the inferential method. All of the sites except Rishiri and Ogasawara had high mean annual total nitrogen deposition amounts of approximately 10 kg N ha-1 year-1 or more, over the 10-year period. The high contribution of oxidized nitrogen deposition in the central area is mainly caused by domestic emissions, especially for dry deposition processes. An increase in reduced nitrogen deposition originating from regional emissions was found, and is likely to result in a subsequent increase in the total nitrogen deposition in Japan. Since neither a clear increasing nor decreasing trend in total nitrogen deposition was found at any site during the 10-year period, the nitrogen deposition amounts remained high thorough the long period in Japanese remote area. The spatial distribution of nitrogen deposition was found to be significant when uncertainties were accounted for. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Huo M.Q.,Asia Center for Air Pollution Research | Sato K.,Asia Center for Air Pollution Research | Ohizumi T.,Japan Institute for Environmental Sciences | Akimoto H.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Takahashi K.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center
Atmospheric Environment | Year: 2016

A methodology for the collection and analysis of organic carbon (OC) and elemental carbon (EC) in precipitation was established and the monitoring of OC and EC in precipitation and aerosol was implemented at the Niigata (rural), Sado (remote), and Tokyo (urban) sites in Japan. The OC in precipitation was measured for water-insoluble OC (WIOC) and water-soluble OC (WSOC) separately. The concentrations of EC and WIOC in precipitation were 78.9 μg/l and 657 μg/l at the Tokyo site, 26.0 μg/l and 274 μg/l at the Sado site, 24.6 μg/l and 274 at the Niigata site. The ratio of EC to OC in the precipitation and aerosol samples were the highest at Tokyo site. The scavenging ratio of OC was higher than EC, implying that OC was more easily removed from the atmosphere compared to EC. The high concentrations of EC in precipitation in winter and spring at the Sado site were mainly due to the long-range transport from the Northeast Asian Continent, whereas at the Tokyo site the high level of EC concentration was mainly from domestic emissions. The seasonal variation of EC and OC in precipitation in East Asia was obtained for the first time. The major source for the high EC concentrations in precipitation at the Sado site in winter was ascribed to the fuel combustion, but in spring, it may be the result of biomass burning in the Northeast of the continent. © 2016 Elsevier Ltd.

Saikawa E.,Princeton University | Saikawa E.,Massachusetts Institute of Technology | Kurokawa J.,Japan National Institute of Environmental Studies | Kurokawa J.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center | And 5 more authors.
Atmospheric Chemistry and Physics | Year: 2011

The number of vehicles in China has been increasing rapidly. We evaluate the impact of current and possible future vehicle emissions from China on Asian air quality. We modify the Regional Emission Inventory in Asia (REAS) for China's road transport sector in 2000 using updated Chinese data for the number of vehicles, annual mileage, and emission factors. We develop two scenarios for 2020: a scenario where emission factors remain the same as they were in 2000 (No-Policy, NoPol), and a scenario where Euro 3 vehicle emission standards are applied to all vehicles (except motorcycles and rural vehicles). The Euro 3 scenario is an approximation of what may be the case in 2020 as, starting in 2008, all new vehicles in China (except motorcycles) were required to meet the Euro 3 emission standards. Using the Weather Research and Forecasting model coupled with Chemistry (WRF/Chem), we examine the regional air quality response to China's vehicle emissions in 2000 and in 2020 for the NoPol and Euro 3 scenarios. We evaluate the 2000 model results with observations in Japan, China, Korea, and Russia. Under NoPol in 2020, emissions of carbon monoxide (CO), nitrogen oxides (NOx), non-methane volatile organic compounds (NMVOCs), black carbon (BC), and organic carbon (OC) from China's vehicles more than double compared to the 2000 baseline. If all vehicles meet the Euro 3 regulations in 2020, however, these emissions are reduced by more than 50% relative to NoPol. The implementation of stringent vehicle emission standards leads to a large, simultaneous reduction of the surface ozone (O3) mixing ratios and particulate matter (PM2.5) concentrations. In the Euro 3 scenario, surface O3 is reduced by more than 10 ppbv and surface PM2.5 is reduced by more than 10 μg- 3 relative to NoPol in Northeast China in all seasons. In spring, surface O3 mixing ratios and PM2.5 concentrations in neighboring countries are also reduced by more than 3 ppbv and 1 μg- 3, respectively. We find that effective regulation of China's road transport sector will be of significant benefit for air quality both within China and across East Asia as well. © 2011 Author(s).

Horiguchi M.,Kyoto University | Hayashi T.,Kyoto University | Hashiguchi H.,Kyoto University | Ito Y.,Sonic Corporation | Ueda H.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center
Boundary-Layer Meteorology | Year: 2010

Turbulence structures of high Reynolds number flow in the near-neutral atmospheric boundary layer (ABL) are investigated based on observations at Shionomisaki and Shigaraki, Japan. A Doppler sodar measured the vertical profiles of winds in the ABL. Using the integral wavelet transform for the time series of surface wind data, the pattern of a descending high-speed structure with large vertical extent (from the surface to more than 200-m level) is depicted from the Doppler sodar data. Essentially this structure is a specific type of coherent structure that has been previously shown in experiments on turbulent boundary-layer flows. Large-scale high-speed structures in the ABL are extracted using a long time scale (240 s) for the wavelet transform. The non-dimensional interval of time between structures is evaluated as 3.0-6.2 in most cases. These structures make a large contribution to downward momentum transfer in the surface layer. Quadrant analyses of the turbulent motion measured by the sonic anemometer (20-m height) suggest that the sweep motion (high-speed downward motion) plays a substantial role in the downward momentum transfer. In general, the contribution of sweep motions to the momentum flux is nearly equal to that of ejection motions (low-speed upward motions). This contribution of sweep motions is related to the large-scale high-speed structures. © 2010 Springer Science+Business Media B.V.

PubMed | Japan Environmental Sanitation Center and Kyoto University
Type: | Journal: International journal of toxicology | Year: 2017

Epidemiologic studies have reported that particulate matter with aerodynamic diameters 2.5 m (PM

Miyamoto Y.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center | Iwanaga C.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center
Journal of the Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom | Year: 2016

Reduction in survival under hypoxic conditions in the presence of sulphide has been repeatedly demonstrated in various benthic invertebrates. However, the reason for this reduction has not yet been clearly elucidated. In this study, the effects of sulphide accumulation on anoxic survival and anaerobic metabolism were investigated in the ark shell Anadara kagoshimensis. Ark shells from western Japan were experimentally exposed to 3 sulphide-accumulation levels under sustained anoxic conditions: accumulated H2S treatment (static incubation), decreased H2S treatment (semi-static incubation with daily replacement of incubation media), and inhibited H2S treatment (static incubation with the addition of antibiotics). Moreover, the effect of antibiotics on anoxic survival was examined under sulphide exposure. The decreased H2S and inhibited H2S treatments resulted in 1.5- and 3-fold increase in the anoxic survival time, respectively, when compared with the accumulated H2S treatment. Under anoxic sulphide exposure, the antibiotics addition did not affect survival time, suggesting the shorter survival time in the accumulated H2S incubation was probably due to sulphide toxicity. Glycogen consumption and propionate accumulation, which indicate activation of anaerobic metabolism, were observed in both accumulated and inhibited H2S treatments. However, glycogen consumption was significantly higher in the accumulated H2S treatment after a significant sulphide accumulation was detected in the incubation media. In addition, survival in the accumulated H2S treatment decreased rapidly, whereas no significant mortality was observed in the inhibited H2S throughout the experiment. These results likely suggest that the accelerated anoxic-driven mortality in sulphide-rich environments was partly due to the faster breakdown of glycogen. Copyright © Marine Biological Association of the United Kingdom 2016

Nagaoka S.,Japan Environmental Sanitation Center
14th Asian Regional Conference on Soil Mechanics and Geotechnical Engineering | Year: 2011

A series of centrifuge model tests in which reverse fault of dip angle 60° at bedrock level has been conducted to investigate the conditions in which buildings with shallow foundations can be unaffected by adjacent fault rupture emergence. In addition, the effect of foundation position, bearing pressure and breadth on the fault-foundation interaction is also included. According to the free-field reverse fault tests, firstly single shear localisation propagated in the upward direction from the base block discontinuity, and later became inactive. Thereafter, the soil shear strains were localized in one or more shear localisation which had a steeper inclination to the horizontal than the first shear localisation and represented the active fault rupture shear localisations. In addition, heavily loaded rigid strip foundation positioned so that the free field fault localisation would emerge at almost the far edge of the foundation experienced severe rotations compared to the centred position case.

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