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Mori H.,Japan Community Healthcare Organization
Journal of Radiological Protection | Year: 2015

The optimisation and decision-making processes for radiological protection have been broadened by the introduction of re-examination or feedback after introducing protective measures. In this study, action research was used to reduce the occupational exposure of vascular interventional radiology (IR) nurses. Four radiological protection improvement measures were continuously performed in cooperation with the researchers, nurses and stakeholders, and the nurses' annual effective doses were compared before and after the improvements. First, the dosimetry equipment was changed from one electronic personal dosimeter (EPD) to two silver-activated phosphate glass dosimeters (PGDs). Second, the nurses were educated regarding maintaining a safe distance from the sources of scattered and leakage radiation. Third, portable radiation shielding screens were placed in the IR rooms. Fourth, the x-ray units' pulse rates were reduced by half. On changing the dosimetry method, the two PGDs recorded a 4.4 fold greater dose than the single EPD. Educating nurses regarding radiological protection and reducing the pulse rates by half decreased their effective doses to one-third and two-fifths of the baseline dose, respectively. No significant difference in their doses was detected after the placement of the shielding screens. Therefore, the action research effectively decreased the occupational doses of the vascular IR nurses. © 2015 IOP Publishing Ltd.

Narita M.,Okinawa Chubu Hospital | Tokuda Y.,Japan Community Healthcare Organization | Barnett P.,University of Nevada, Reno
QJM | Year: 2016

It poses a serious problemif physicians leave a hospital without having a replacement or without permission. A huge earthquake followed by a devastating tsunami seriously damaged the Fukushima-Daiichi nuclear power plant. This disaster overwhelmed a major teaching hospital in the local area and many hospital employees, including some resident physicians, left the premises. Since the threat of severe radiation exposure poses a potentially greater lifetime risk to younger individuals, letting the young resident physicians leave the hospital was not only allowed, it was actually recommended by many attending physicians and hospital administrators. The hospital administrator was required to make the difficult decision of whether to make all efforts to provide the highest level of medical care, including keeping all of the physicians on the premises, or to evacuate the resident physicians in order to preserve their health and their potential future contributions to healthcare. Consideration and compassion needed to be provided to all people, regardless of the reason they wanted to leave. From an ethical perspective, the roles of performance under these complex circumstances should be understood and embraced by us as individuals, professionals, supervisors and society as a whole. © The Author 2016. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Association of Physicians.

Kinoshita K.,University of Tsukuba | Tsugawa Y.,Harvard Interfaculty Initiative in Health Policy | Barnett P.B.,University of Nevada, Reno | Tokuda Y.,Japan Community Healthcare Organization
BMC Medical Education | Year: 2015

Background: Professionalism is deemed as the basis of physicians' contract with society in Japan. Our study in 2005, using a questionnaire with scenarios to professionalism, suggested that many physicians at various levels of training in Japan encounter challenges when responding to these common scenarios related to professionalism. It is unclear how medical professionalism has changed among Japanese residents in over time. Methods: We conducted a follow-up survey about challenges to professionalism for Japanese residents using the same Barry Questionnaire after a seven-year interval from the prior survey. The survey uses six clinical scenarios with multiple choice responses. The six cases include the following challenges: acceptance of gifts; conflict of interest; confidentiality; physician impairment; sexual harassment; and honesty in documentation. Each scenario is followed by 4 or 5 possible responses, including the "best" and the "second best" responses. The survey was conducted as a part of nationwide general medicine in-training examination. Results: We collected data from 1,049 participants (290 women, 28%; 431 PGY-1 and 618 PGY-2 residents). Overall, the current residents performed better than their colleagues in the earlier survey for five scenarios (gifts, conflict of interest, confidentiality, impairment, and honesty) but not for the harassment scenario. PGY-2 residents were more likely to select either the best or 2nd best choices to gifts (p∈=∈0.002) and harassment (p∈=∈0.031) scenarios than PGY-1 residents. Residents in the current study chose either the best or 2nd best choices to the gifts (p∈<∈0.001) and honesty (p∈<∈0.001) scenarios than those of the previous study conducted seven years ago, but not for the harassment scenario (p∈=∈0.004). Conclusions: Our study suggests that there is improvement of medical professionalism with respect to some ethical challenges among the Japanese residents in the current study compared to those in our previous study. © 2015 Kinoshita et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

Watari T.,Tokyo Joto Hospital | Tokuda Y.,Japan Community Healthcare Organization
BMJ Case Reports | Year: 2015

The differential diagnosis of causes of seizure is important since appropriate management depends on correct diagnosis. Making a misdiagnosis of epilepsy may lead to erroneous clinical management, and can be minimised with careful history taking and physical examination. Our educational case illustrates a patient with presumed epilepsy based on a witnessed generalised tonic-clonic seizure; he was ultimately diagnosed as upper gastrointestinal bleeding initially considered by careful attention of vital signs and rectal examination, and con firmed and treated by emergent endoscopy. Paying careful attention to the symptoms and signs in patients with seizure episodes is crucial to establishing a correct causative diagnosis for seizure. Copyright © 2015 BMJ Publishing Group. All rights reserved.

Hamano J.,University of Tsukuba | Ozone S.,University of Tsukuba | Tokuda Y.,Japan Community Healthcare Organization
BMC Health Services Research | Year: 2015

Background: There have been no multicenter studies that estimated the relations of either nurse or pharmacist home visit program to drug costs of potentially inappropriate medications (PIMs). This study aimed to establish whether patients who used nurse or pharmacist home visit programs (nurse or pharmacist program) had lower drug costs of PIMs than those who did not use nurse or pharmacist programs for older patients living at home. Methods: This cross-sectional study was conducted in home care settings in Japan, involving 430 patients aged 65 or older, of whom 276 were female. All received regular home visits from five clinics between May and December 2013. After the PIMs were identified with the Screening Tool of Older Persons' potentially inappropriate Prescriptions (STOPP) criteria, we estimated the drug costs based on actual pharmaceutical prices and measured against who using nurse or pharmacist programs after a propensity score weighted adjustment. Results: Patients who used nurse programs had lower drug cost of PIMs than those who did not use, but it was not significantly different (5.9 ± 13.1 vs 7.1 ± 13.9 USD per month, P = 0.199). The cost of PIMs for patients who used pharmacist programs also had no difference. (7.2 ± 14.5 vs 5.5 ± 11.5 USD per month, P = 0.06). In the patient groups who used nurse programs, patients who also used pharmacist programs had significantly higher costs of PIMs than those who used only nurse programs (5.5 ± 13.9 vs 2.5 ± 6.0 USD per month, P = 0.006). In patients group who did not use pharmacist programs, patients who only used nurse programs had significantly lower costs of PIMs than those who did not use nurse programs (3.6 ± 7.7 vs 5.8 ± 12.7 USD per month, P = 0.022). Conclusions: Patients who used nurse program have a trend towards lower drug costs of PIMs than those who used nurse and pharmacist program or pharmacist program alone. Although this study tried to adjust the potential confounders as possible as we could by using propensity score analysis, further studies are needed to confirm our results. © 2015 Hamano et al.; licensee BioMed Central.

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