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Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Date: 2016-09-15

A method for detecting gas leakage from a radioactive material sealed container includes measuring a temperature at a top portion of a metallic sealed container, a temperature at a bottom portion of a lid portion of a concrete-made storage container facing the top portion of the metallic sealed container, or a temperature of a member existing between the bottom portion of the lid portion and the top portion of the metallic sealed container. An inner temperature of the lid portion of the concrete-made storage container is also measured. Presence of leakage of inactive gas is estimated by comparing the temperatures.

Agency: Cordis | Branch: FP7 | Program: CP | Phase: Fission-2012-2.3.1 | Award Amount: 10.27M | Year: 2013

Nuclear power plays a key role in limiting EUs greenhouse gases emissions, and makes an important contribution to improve European Unions independence, security and diversity of energy supply. However, its social acceptance is closely linked to an enhanced safety in the management of long-lived radioactive waste contributing to resource efficiency and cost-effectiveness of this energy and ensuring a robust and socially acceptable system of protection of man and environment. Among the different strategies, partitioning and transmutation (P&T) allows a reduction of the amount, the radiotoxicity and the thermal power of these wastes, leading to an optimal use of geological repository sites. In line with the Strategic Research Agenda of SNE-TP, the SACSESS collaborative project will provide a structured framework to enhance the fuel cycle safety associated to P&T. In addition, safety studies will be performed for each selected process to identify weak points to be studied further. These data will be integrated to optimise flowsheets and process operation conditions. A training and education programme will be implemented in close collaboration with other European initiatives, addressing safety issues of nuclear energy industry. The multidisciplinary consortium composed of European universities, nuclear research bodies, TSOs and industrial stakeholders will generate fundamental safety improvements on the future design of an Advanced Processing Unit. SACSESS will thus be an essential contribution to the demonstration of the potential benefits of actinide partitioning to the global safety of the long-lived waste management.

Takeuchi S.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
Journal of Geophysical Research: Solid Earth | Year: 2011

Using a compilation of melt compositions, meltwater contents, temperatures, and phenocryst contents, the preeruptive viscosities under magma reservoir conditions are calculated for 83 erupted magmas. The basaltic-to-rhyolitic magmas have preeruptive viscosities over the range 101 to 10 8 Pa s. Although bulk SiO2 content has often been used as a qualitative measure of preeruptive magma viscosity, the bulk SiO2 content shows a weak correlation with magma viscosity (correlation coefficient r = 0.5). Because of a wide range of phenocryst contents from 0 to ∼50 vol %, andesitic magmas have viscosities ranging from 102 to 107 Pa s, which are lower or higher than those of phenocryst-poor rhyolitic magmas with 105 to 106 Pa s. Focusing on andesitic to rhyolitic magmas, the r between bulk SiO2 contents and magma viscosities changes to -0.1. In contrast, the melt-only SiO2 content from a basaltic-to-rhyolitic melt shows a good linear correlation with melt-only viscosity (r = 0.9). Although most of the calculated viscosities of erupted magmas fall below ∼106 Pa s, as consistent with the previous compilation study, this paper describes 20 examples of highly viscous magmas with >106 Pa s, in most cases, composed of mixtures of high-silica rhyolitic melt (75-79 wt % SiO2) and abundant phenocrysts (30-55 vol %). In these highly viscous magmas, 9 examples have erupted following the precursory eruption of less viscous magma, suggesting that precursory dike propagation and conduit formation by the less viscous magma with <10 6 Pa s induced the following eruption of less eruptible, highly viscous magmas. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.

Hamada N.,Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry
Radiation Research | Year: 2014

Exactly a century after Röntgen's discovery of X rays, I entered a university to major in radiological sciences. At that time, I felt that, despite extensive use and indispensable roles of ionizing radiation in medicine and industry, many fascinating questions have yet to be answered concerning its biological mechanisms of action, and thus I decided to get into the field of radiation research. Fifteen years have passed since I started radiobiological studies in 1998, during which time various basic tenets I initially learned in my late teens and early twenties have been challenged by recent observations. Of these, this brief overview particularly focuses on the following five different albeit non mutually exclusive questions: (i) "Is nuclear DNA the only intracellular target for radiation effects?"; (ii) "What is the significance of delayed cell death in clonogenic survival?"; (iii) "Does an irradiated cell become a cancer cell?"; (iv) "Are cataracts tissue reactions?"; and (v) "Why is high-LET radiation biologically effective?". © 2014 by Radiation Research Society.

Japan National Institute of Advanced Industrial Science, Technology and Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Date: 2013-07-31

The present invention provides a semiconductor structure which includes at least a p-type silicon carbide single crystal layer having an -type crystal structure, containing aluminum at impurity concentration of 110^(19 )cm^(3 )or higher, and having thickness of 50 m or greater. Further provided is a method for producing the semiconductor structure of the present invention which method includes at least epitaxial growth step of introducing silicon carbide source and aluminum source and epitaxially growing p-type silicon carbide single crystal layer over a base layer made of silicon carbide single crystal having -type crystal structure, wherein the epitaxial growth step is performed at temperature conditions of from 1,500 C. to 1,700 C., and pressure conditions of from 510^(3 )Pa to 2510^(3 )Pa.

When growing a hexagonal single crystal, an off angle is set, in a first direction [11-20] with respect to a basal plane {0001} serving as a main crystal growth plane, in a hexagonal single crystal for use as a foundation in performing crystal growth; and a cross-sectional shape which is decreased in crystal thickness in a stair-step manner from a reference line AA parallel to the first direction [11-20] toward second directions [1100], [1-100] on both sides of the reference line and orthogonal to the first direction [11-20]. Dislocations threading in a c-axis direction, contained in the hexagonal single crystal, are converted into defects inclined 40 from the c-axis direction toward the basal plane during crystal growth, and the direction of propagation of the defects is controlled to a direction between a direction [1-120] opposite to the first direction [11-20] and the second directions [1100], [1-100], to discharge defects.

A system for treating a selenium-containing liquid, a wet flue gas desulfurization device, and a method for treating a selenium-containing liquid treat a selenium-containing liquid by adding bivalent manganese to the selenium-containing liquid, thereby suppressing oxidation of tetravalent selenium to hexavalent selenium. The system includes: a potential measurement unit for measuring an oxidation-reduction potential of the selenium-containing liquid, and a pH measurement unit for measuring a pH value of the selenium-containing liquid; a detection unit for detecting whether or not the selenium-containing liquid is in a state where selenium stabilizes at a valence of 4 or higher, based on the measured oxidation-reduction potential and the measured pH value; and an addition unit for adding bivalent manganese into the selenium-containing liquid when the selenium-containing liquid is in a state where selenium stabilizes at a valence of 4 or higher.

Hitachi Zosen Corporation and Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Date: 2014-03-07

A method to prevent stress corrosion cracking of a storage canister 1, wherein stress corrosion cracking is prevented by applying a compressive stress to a range where a tensile residual stress is generated on a metallic body 2 by welding a cover 4 to a top 2a of the body 2. A first compressive stress is applied beforehand to a range L of the body 2 where a tensile residual stress is expected to be generated by the welding of the cover 4, the tensile residual stress is canceled by welding the cover 4 with a compressive residual stress generated in the range L, and then a second compressive stress is applied so as to generate a compressive residual stress over the range L.

Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry | Date: 2013-02-26

A molten carbonate fuel cell, which makes a separator unnecessary, cuts down the number of components, and markedly reduces the costs, is provided. In the cell, a cathode, an electrolyte plate holding an electrolyte, and an anode are provided concentrically with a tube body, the electrolyte plate is held by the anode, and the electrolyte plate is sandwiched between the anode and the cathode, so that the cell is constructed without the use of a separator.

Denso Corporation, Japan Central Research Institute of Electric Power Industry, and Technology Inc. and Toyota Jidosha Kabushiki Kaisha | Date: 2014-06-19

In a silicon carbide semiconductor film forming apparatus, first to third gasses are introduced into first to third separation chambers through first to third inlets, respectively. The first and second gasses are silicon raw material including gas and carbon raw material including gas, and the third gas does not include silicon and carbon. The first and second gasses are independently supplied to growth space through first and second supply paths extending from the first and second separation chambers, respectively. The third gas is introduced through a third supply path from the third separation chamber between the first and second gasses.

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