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Ozeki Y.,Osaka City University | Ozeki Y.,Sonoda Womens University | Hirayama Y.,Osaka City University | Takii T.,Nagoya City University | And 3 more authors.
Vaccine | Year: 2011

Mycobacterium bovis bacillus Calmette-Guérin (BCG) is the most often used vaccine worldwide and sole vaccine against tuberculosis. BCG is protective against severe form of childhood tuberculosis but less or not protective to adult pulmonary tuberculosis. Therefore, improved vaccination strategies and development of new tuberculosis vaccines are urgent demands. For those purposes, appropriate animal models that reflect human are critically useful. However, in animal models, BCG vaccination protects well against subsequent challenge of Mycobacterium tuberculosis. In this study we evaluated the duration of protective efficacy of the BCG vaccination in mice over time and found that efficacy was diminished 40 weeks after vaccination. The aged mice older than 45 weeks are protected sufficiently after the vaccination with BCG, suggesting that loss of its efficacy is not dependent on the age of mice but rather depends on the period from vaccination. The loss of protection occurred in TH1 polarized STAT6 deficient mice despite the maintenance of interferon (IFN)-gamma production activity of lymph node cells and splenic CD4 + T cells against M. tuberculosis antigens. Our data suggest that the duration from vaccination may explain the variation in BCG efficacy against adult pulmonary tuberculosis. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd.

Nakamura T.,Hokkaido University | Fukiage M.,Hokkaido University | Suzuki Y.,Hokkaido University | Yano I.,Japan BCG Central Laboratory | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Controlled Release | Year: 2014

We previously reported on the development of a water soluble formulation of the cell wall skeleton of BCG (BCG-CWS), a major immune active center of BCG, by encapsulating it into a nanoparticle (CWS-NP). The CWS-NP allowed us to clarify the machinery associated with the BCG mediated anti-bladder tumor effect, especially the roles of bladder cancer cells and dendritic cells (DCs) in the initial step, which remains poorly understood. We show herein that the internalization of BCG-CWS by bladder cancer cells, but not DCs, is indispensable for the induction of an antitumor effect against bladder cancer. Tumor growth was significantly inhibited in mice that had been inoculated with mouse bladder cancer (MBT-2) cells containing internalized BCG-CWS. On the other hand, the internalization of BCG-CWS by DCs had only a minor effect on inducing an antitumor effect against MBT-2 tumors. This was clarified for the first time by using the CWS-NP. This finding provides insights into our understanding of the role of bladder cancer cells and DCs in BCG therapy against bladder cancer. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. All rights reserved.

Nishimura T.,Keio University | Fujita-Suzuki Y.,Japan BCG Central Laboratory | Yonemaru M.,Isehara Kyodo Hospital | Ohkusu K.,Tokyo Medical University | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Microbiology | Year: 2015

We report a case of recurrent disseminated Mycobacterium avium complex (DMAC) disease with anti-gamma interferon autoantibodies. To our knowledge, this is the first reported case caused by reinfection with a separate isolate of M. avium. DMAC disease activity was monitored using serum IgG antibody titers against lipid antigens extracted from a MAC strain. Copyright © 2015, American Society for Microbiology. All Rights Reserved.

Ito T.,Nagoya City University | Takii T.,Nagoya City University | Maruyama M.,Institute for Longevity science | Hayashi D.,Nagoya City University | And 7 more authors.
Immunity and Ageing | Year: 2010

Background: The tuberculosis (TB) still increases in the number of new cases, which is estimated to approach 10 million in 2010. The number of aged people has been growing all over the world. Ageing is one of risk factors in tuberculosis because of decreased immune responses in aged people. Mycobacterium bovis Bacillus Calmette Guérin (BCG) is a sole vaccine currently used for TB, however, the efficacy of BCG in adults is still a matter of debate. Emerging the multidrug resistant Mycobacterium tuberculosis (MDR-TB) make us to see the importance of vaccination against TB in new light. In this study, we evaluated the efficacy of BCG vaccination in aged mice.Results: The Th1 responses, interferon-γ production and interleukin 2, in BCG inoculated aged mice (24-month-old) were comparable to those of young mice (4- to 6-week-old). The protection activity of BCG in aged mice against Mycobacterium tuberculosis H37Rv was also the same as young mice.Conclusion: These findings suggest that vaccination in aged generation is still effective for protection against tuberculosis. © 2010 Ito et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd.

Miyazaki J.,University of Tsukuba | Kawai K.,University of Tsukuba | Kojima T.,University of Tsukuba | Oikawa T.,University of Tsukuba | And 7 more authors.
BJU International | Year: 2011

OBJECTIVE To conduct a preclinical evaluation of the ability of natural killer cells to cytolyze bladder cancer cells that were modified to show enhanced expression of natural-killer group 2, member D (NKG2D) ligands by R8-liposome-bacillus Calmette-Guéin (BCG)-cell wall skeleton (CWS) treatment. MATERIALS AND METHODS The T24 cells and RT-112 cells were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS and BCG for 2, 4, or 6 h, and then the surface expression of NKG2D ligands was analyzed using TaqMan real-time quantitative RT-PCR. Peripheral blood mononuclear cells were obtained with a conventional preparation kit, and then lymphokine-activated killer (LAK) cells were generated from these purified peripheral blood mononuclear cells via interleukin-2 stimulation. The anti-tumour effect of LAK cells against untreated and R8-liposome-BCG-CWS co-cultured with cells of the human bladder cancer cell lines T24 and RT-112 was analyzed using the cytotoxic WST-8 assay method at 4 h of culture at various effector/target (E: T) ratios. RESULTS Major histocompatibility complex class I-related chain B (MICB) expression was increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. UL-16-binding protein (ULBP) 1 expression was also increased ≈1.5-fold on T24 cells and RT-112 cells with BCG. R8-liposome-BCG-CWS increased the surface expression of MICB 2.2-fold on T24 cells but did not increase it significantly on RT-112 cells. ULBP1 expression was increased ≈2.2-fold on RT-112 cells, although no differences were observed between the expression of ULBP2 and 3 with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. T24 cells that were co-cultured with R8-liposome-BCG-CWS showed an ≈1.3-fold increase in sensitivity to cytolysis by LAK cells at an E: T ratio of 4 and RT-112 cells showed an ≈1.4-fold increase at an E: T ratio of 2. CONCLUSIONS In the present study, the induction of surface NKG2D ligands by R8-liposome-BCG-CWS rendered cancer cells more susceptible to cytolysis by LAK cells. T24 cells and RT-112 cells, even when cultured singly in the absence of immune cells, can directly respond to R8-liposome-BCG-CWS. The results obtained in the present study may therefore indicate a novel adoptive immunotherapy against bladder cancers. © 2011 BJU INTERNATIONAL.

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