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Mizuno T.,Japan Animal Specialty Medical Institute Inc. | Kamiyama H.,Nihon University | Mizuno M.,Japan Animal Specialty Medical Institute Inc. | Mizukoshi T.,Japan Animal Specialty Medical Institute Inc. | And 7 more authors.
Research in Veterinary Science

Currently, there are no reports of inflammatory responses to CPB in dogs. We investigated the time course of pro- and anti-inflammatory cytokine levels during and after CPB. Animals: The study group included 11 dogs that underwent mitral valve repair with CPB, and the control group included 7 healthy dogs that underwent ovariohysterectomy. Methods: Blood samples from the study group dogs were collected before, during and after surgery and analyzed for plasma levels of interleukin-6 (IL-6), tissue necrosis factor-α (TNF-α), interleukin-10 (IL-10), white blood cells (WBC), and C-reactive protein (CRP). Each inflammatory parameter was also compared with that of the control group dogs. Results: After CPB, plasma levels of IL-6, WBC counts, and CRP levels were significantly higher than preoperative levels, and IL-6 levels in the study group were significantly higher than those in the control group. Conclusions: CPB induces a systemic inflammatory response in dogs. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. Source

Lee J.,Nihon University | Mizuno M.,Nihon University | Mizuno M.,Japan Animal Specialty Medical Institute Inc. | Mizuno T.,Nihon University | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Internal Medicine

Background: Evaluation of myocardial function is clinically challenging in dogs with degenerative mitral valve disease (DMVD). Although myocardial dysfunction is caused by pathologic degeneration, histopathologic progression is poorly understood. Objectives: To characterize myocardial and pulmonary pathologic changes according to severity in dogs with naturally occurring DMVD, and to investigate whether or not pathologic degeneration is reflected by traditional clinical indices. Animals: One hundred and seventeen dogs with naturally occurring DMVD. Methods: Prospective observational study. Biopsied left atrium (LA), left ventricle (LV), and lung were evaluated histologically, and an attempt was made to correlate pathologic findings with clinical indices. Results: Severe myocardial changes were observed in all International Small Animal Cardiac Health Council classes. In the lung, heart failure cell levels were significantly increased in class III patients (P < .0001). In a paired comparison, the LA showed significantly more severe degeneration than the LV, including myocardial fatty replacement, immune cell infiltration, and interstitial fibrosis (P < .0001). In contrast, myocardial cells were more hypertrophied in the LV than in the LA (P < .0001). Left ventricular end-diastolic dimension (LVEDd) was associated with fatty replacement (P = .033, R2 = 0.584) and myocardial vacuolization (P = .003, R2 = 0.588) in the LA. Conclusions and Clinical Importance: In DMVD, although severe pathologic changes may be evident even in early stages, there may be pathologic discrepancy between the LA and the LV. Myocardial degeneration may be reflected by clinical indices such as LVEDd and EF. © 2015 American College of Veterinary Internal Medicine. Source

Funayama M.,Japan National Cardiovascular Center Research Institute | Funayama M.,Nihon University | Matsui Y.,Kansai University | Tajikawa T.,Kansai University | And 13 more authors.
Journal of Veterinary Cardiology

Objectives To evaluate the functionality of an autologous heart valve with stent (Stent-biovalve or SBV) after implantation in the pulmonic valve position in beagle dogs. Animals Five beagle dogs. Methods A mold with an aperture of a tri-leaflet structure was constructed from a pair of concave and convex rods to which a nitinol (NiTi) stent was mounted. This mold was embedded in a dorsal subcutaneous pouch in beagle dogs for 4 weeks. At the time of the removal, the surfaces of the molds were completely covered with connective tissues, tri-leaflet valves were formed and the NiTi stent was tightly connected to the structure. Results The mean burst strength of the SBV leaflet was 2710 mmHg (range 2280-3116 mmHg), which was approximately equal to that of the native pulmonic valve leaflet. After implantation in the pulmonary position, the SBV showed good functionality as a pulmonic valve. At 84 days after implantation, the SBV was replaced with autologous fibroblasts and collagenous tissues, and showed organization similar to that of native heart valves. Conclusion Stent-Biovalves achieved good valvular function with laminar flow in the pulmonic valve position of beagle dogs. © 2015 Elsevier B.V. Source

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