Yokosuka, Japan

The Japan Agency for Marine-Earth Science and Technology , or JAMSTEC , is a Japanese national research institute for marine-earth science and technology. It was founded as Japan Marine Science and Technology Center in October 1971 and became an Independent Administrative Institution administered by the Ministry of Education, Culture, Sports, Science and Technology in April 2004. Wikipedia.


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Patent
Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Date: 2016-10-03

Disclosed is a method for suppressing the growth of a target cell, which is not limited in the type of a target cell and the type of a protein to be expressed in the target cell and needs not any preparatory experiment for determining a codon to be contained in a protein to be expressed in a target cell. Specifically disclosed is a method for suppressing the growth of a target cell, which comprises the steps of: incorporating DNA containing a region encoding a protein into the target cell, and allowing a protein encoded by the DNA to be expressed in the target cell into which the DNA has been incorporated. The region contained in the DNA comprises a tri-nucleotide sequence. The tri-nucleotide sequence is selected from codons that define at least some amino acid species constituting the protein, and is complementary to at least some codons that are used in the target cell at a frequency of 0.2 or less.


Grant
Agency: GTR | Branch: NERC | Program: | Phase: Research Grant | Award Amount: 196.01K | Year: 2016

Subduction zones are located where one of the Earths tectonic plates slides beneath another - this motion is controlled by the plate boundary fault. These plate boundary faults are capable of generating the largest earthquakes and tsunami on Earth, such as the 2011 Tohuku-oki, Japan and the 2004 Sumatra-Andaman earthquakes, together responsible for ~250,000 fatalities. Although some plate boundary faults fail in catastrophic earthquakes, at some subduction margins the plates creep past each other effortlessly with no stress build-up along the fault, and therefore large earthquakes are not generated. Determining what controls whether a fault creeps or slips in large earthquakes is fundamental to assessing the seismic hazard communities living in the vicinity of plate boundary faults face and to our understanding of the earthquake process itself. In the last 15 years a completely new type of seismic phenomena has been discovered at subduction zones: silent earthquakes or slow slip events (SSEs). These are events that release as much energy as a large earthquake, but do so over several weeks or even months and there is no ground-shaking at all. SSEs may have the potential to trigger highly destructive earthquakes and tsunami, but whether this is possible and why SSEs occur at all are two of the most important questions in earthquake seismology today. We only know SSEs exist because they cause movements of the Earth that can be measured with GPS technology. Slow slip events have now been discovered at almost all subduction zones where there is a good, continuous GPS network, including Japan, Costa Rica, NW America and New Zealand. Importantly, there is recent evidence that SSEs preceded and may have triggered two of the largest earthquakes this decade, the 2011 Tohuki-oki and 2014 Iquique, Chile earthquakes. Therefore, there is an urgent societal need to better understand SSEs and their relationship to destructive earthquakes. We know little about SSEs because most of them occur at depths of 25-40 km: too deep to drill and to image clearly using seismic data, a remote method that uses high-energy sound waves to probe the Earths crust. The Hikurangi margin of northern New Zealand is an important exception. Very shallow SSEs occur here at depths of c. 5 km below the sea bed, and they occur regularly every 1-2 years. This SSE zone is the only such zone worldwide within likely range of modern drilling capabilities and where we can image the fault clearly with seismic techniques - this location provides us with an opportunity to sample and image the fault zone that slowly slips. This will allow testing of a number of different hypotheses proposed to explain SSEs. We can also compare the properties of these rocks with drilling and seismic data from other locations such as Japan, where the faults behave differently and generate very large earthquakes. Through this comparison we can get closer to understanding why some subduction margin faults fail in large earthquakes and others do not and what fault properties control the different slip processes. Before the drilling can take place we need 3D seismic data to characterise the drill site to highlight any potential risks and to allow us to learn more about how rock properties vary in three dimensions away from the drill sites. Even before or without drilling the seismic images will provide important details of the slow slip process and fault properties. We will use a new technique, called full-waveform inversion (FWI) that can produce high resolution models of the speed of sound waves through the Earths crust. Sound waves travel slower through rocks that contain a lot of fluids so we will look for low velocity anomalies signifying the presence of fluids, which models have suggested could allow generation of SSEs. The groundbreaking FWI imaging of the New Zealand subduction zone will be the first of its kind, providing information on fault zone properties at unprecedented resolution.


Patent
Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science, Technology and Toray Industries Inc | Date: 2016-03-23

A sufficient joint strength is easily achieved in a joint structure between a fiber-reinforced plastic and another member. A joint structure 10 is a joint structure between a first member 100 having a pillared end part 100a made of a fiber-reinforced plastic and a second member 200 different from the first member 100. The end part of the first member 100a is reversely tapered in an axial direction, while a joining member 300 is disposed along a reversely tapered form of the end part 100a. The second member 200 is provided in contact with an end face of the first member 100 and connected to the joining member 300. A plurality of fibers 110a substantially extending in the axial direction of the end part 100a of the first member 100 are provided within the end part 100a and disposed to form a larger angle with the axial direction of the end part 100a of the first member 100 as they are disposed to be closer to a surface constituting the reversely tapered form in a radial direction of the end part 100a.


Matsueda M.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2011

Eastern Europe and Western Russia experienced a strong heat wave during the summer of 2010. Maximum temperatures exceeded 40°C in early August, resulting in over 15,000 deaths and many wildfires, inflicting large economic losses on Russia. The heat wave resulted from strong atmospheric blocking that persisted over the Euro- Russian region from late June to early August. This study investigates the predictabilities of extreme Euro-Russian blocking and of the blocking-induced extreme surface temperatures in the summer of 2010, using medium-range ensemble forecasts. The results show that the blocking in June-August (JJA) of 2010 was easily predictable, even for a lead time of +216 hr; however, the blocking that occurred from 30th July to 9th August showed a lower predictability in forecasts over +144 hr compared with other blocking occurrences in JJA of 2010. This low predictability resulted in the failure to predict the extreme temperatures associated with the mature blocking in early August. Most of the forecasts predicted a decay of the blocking earlier than that observed. Copyright © 2011 by the American Geophysical Union.


Yoshida M.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology
Geophysical Research Letters | Year: 2013

The thermal heterogeneity of the Earth's mantle under the drifting continents during a supercontinent cycle is a controversial issue in earth science. Here, a series of numerical simulations of mantle convection are performed in 3-D spherical-shell geometry, incorporating drifting deformable continents and self-consistent plate tectonics, to evaluate the subcontinental mantle temperature during a supercontinent cycle. Results show that the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the subcontinental mantle remains within several tens of degrees (±50°C) throughout the simulation time. Even after the formation of the supercontinent and the development of subcontinental plumes due to the subduction of the oceanic plates, the laterally averaged temperature anomaly of the deep mantle under the continent is within +10°C. This implies that there is no substantial temperature difference between the subcontinental and suboceanic mantles during a supercontinent cycle. The temperature anomaly immediately beneath the supercontinent is generally positive owing to the thermal insulation effect and the active upwelling plumes from the core-mantle boundary. In the present simulation, the formation of a supercontinent causes the laterally averaged subcontinental temperature to increase by a maximum of 50°C, which would produce sufficient tensional force to break up the supercontinent. The regular periodicity of the supercontinent cycles observed in previous 2-D and 3-D simulation models with rigid nondeformable continents and without self-consistent plate tectonics is not confirmed. Key Points Numerical simulations of 3D mantle convection with continents are performed Temperature difference between continental and oceanic mantles is quite small Supercontinent causes the subcontinental temperature to increase by <50 degrees ©2013. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Ito A.,Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology
Global Biogeochemical Cycles | Year: 2013

Iron (Fe) is an essential element for phytoplankton. The majority of iron is transported from arid and semiarid regions to the open ocean, but it is mainly in an insoluble form. Since most aquatic organisms can take up iron only in the dissolved form, aerosol iron solubility is a key factor that can influence the air-sea CO2 fluxes and thus climate. Field observations have shown relatively high iron solubility in aerosols influenced by combustion sources, but specific emissions sources and their contributions to deposition fluxes largely remain uncertain. Here a global chemical transport model was used to investigate the effect of aerosol emissions from ship plumes on iron solubility in particles from the combustion and dust sources. The model results reveal that the oil combustion from shipping mainly contributes to high iron solubility (>10%) at low iron loading (1-110 ng m-3) observed over the high-latitude North Atlantic Ocean, rather than the other combustion sources from continental industrialized regions. Due to continuing growth in global shipping and no regulations regarding particles emissions over the open ocean, the input of potentially bioavailable iron from ship plumes is likely to increase during the next century. The model results suggest that deposition of soluble iron from ships in 2100 contributes 30-60% of the soluble iron deposition over the high-latitude North Atlantic and North Pacific. ©2012. American Geophysical Union. All Rights Reserved.


Patent
Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Date: 2016-12-21

ABSTRACT The object of the invention is to provide a method which specifically and efficiently produces a compound having a phenol propane structure from natural biomass containing lignins by causing microorganisms to act on biomass. The object is achieved by a method for producing a phenyl propane-based compound comprising a step of producing a phenyl propane-based compound by causing microorganisms of the genus Novosphingobium to act on biomass containing lignins and/or lignin-related substances.


Patent
Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Date: 2016-04-13

It is an object to provide a stress history measurement method and a stress sensor by which the stress history of an object being measured can be measured easily with high accuracy over a wide stress measurement range. In the stress history measurement method, the stress history to which the object being measured has been subjected is measured on the basis of the ratio of twinned calcite particles after the object to be measured has been subjected to an external force, the object having a stress sensor embedded therein and capable of being deformed elastically when being subjected to the external force, the sensor including a number of calcite particles. The stress sensor is configured such that a number of calcite particles are hardened by a resin with adjacent particles kept in contact with each other.


Patent
Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Date: 2016-12-21

The object of the invention is to provide a method which, if compared with prior art, more specifically and efficiently produces a compound having a phenol propane structure from natural biomass containing lignins by causing enzymes to act on the biomass. The object is achieved by a method for producing a phenyl propane-based compound comprising a step of producing a phenyl propane-based compound by causing enzymes derived from microorganisms of the genus Novosphingobium to act on biomass containing lignins and/or lignin-related substances in the presence of NAD and reduction type glutathione.


Patent
Japan Agency for Marine - Earth Science and Technology | Date: 2016-02-10

The purpose of the present invention is to provide a nuclease that secretes natural nonpathogenic microorganisms extracellularly, has higher specific activity than conventional nucleases, and is useful in nucleolytic degradation on an industrial scale. This purpose is achieved with an extracellularly secreted nuclease derived from Streptomyces bacteria, the nuclease having specific activity equal to or greater than the specific activity of Benzonase^() when supplied to double-stranded DNA for 30 minutes at 37C in 20 mM Tris/HCl (pH 8.5) containing 1 mM MgCl_(2) and 1 mM CaCl_(2) after purification, using double-stranded DNA, single-stranded DNA, and RNA as substrates.

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