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Raju T.S.,Janssen Research and Development LLC
Methods in Molecular Biology | Year: 2013

Recombinant monoclonal antibodies (rMAbs) are becoming major human therapeutics to treat lifethreatening diseases such as cancer. These rMAbs are produced using either in vitro cell culture processes or transgenic technology in animals or plants. Glycans present in the Fc region can affect functions of rMAbs. These Fc glycans are heterogeneous and impact binding of rMAbs to Fc gamma receptors (FcγRs) and C1q protein. As a result Fc glycans affect antibody-dependent cellular cytotoxicity and complementdependent cytotoxicity of rMAbs. Thus understanding the glycan heterogeneity is necessary during the development of these rMAbs as human therapeutics. Because of their biological significance, understanding the glycan structure and their impact on the function of antibody molecules is also a regulatory requirement. Glycan mapping by NP-HPLC with fluorescence detection is a sensitive and reproducible method. Labeling of released glycans with anthranilic acid (AA) using reductive amination procedure improves sensitivity of detection. The NP-HPLC method resolves both neutral and sialylated glycans, thus enabling the user to obtain a broad heterogeneity profile of Fc glycans in a single run. Added advantage of the method is that the labeled glycans can be characterized using mass spectrometry and the method is also amenable for LC-MS analysis. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.

Fung-Leung W.-P.,Janssen Research and Development LLC
Annals of the New York Academy of Sciences | Year: 2013

Phosphoinositide 3-kinase gamma (PI3Kγ) kinase activity is important for its signaling functions in T cell development, activation, differentiation, and trafficking. Protection of PI3Kγ knockout mice from disease in multiple autoimmune models suggests that targeting PI3Kγ alone, or in combination with PI3Kδ, could be a promising approach to disease therapy. © 2013 New York Academy of Sciences.

Swiecki M.,University of Washington | Swiecki M.,Janssen Research and Development LLC | Colonna M.,University of Washington
Nature Reviews Immunology | Year: 2015

Plasmacytoid dendritic cells (pDCs) are a unique DC subset that specializes in the production of type I interferons (IFNs). pDCs promote antiviral immune responses and have been implicated in the pathogenesis of autoimmune diseases that are characterized by a type I IFN signature. However, pDCs can also induce tolerogenic immune responses. In this Review, we summarize recent progress in the field of pDC biology, focusing on the molecular mechanisms that regulate the development and functions of pDCs, the pathways involved in their sensing of pathogens and endogenous nucleic acids, their functions at mucosal sites, and their roles in infection, autoimmunity and cancer. © 2015 Macmillan Publishers Limited. All rights reserved.

Thurmond R.L.,Janssen Research and Development LLC
Frontiers in Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The histamine H4 receptor (H4R) was first noted as a sequence in genomic databases that had features of a class A G-protein coupled receptor. This putative receptor was found to bind histamine consistent with its homology to other histamine receptors and thus became the fourth member of the histamine receptor family. Due to the previous success of drugs that target the H1 and H2 receptors, an effort was made to understand the function of this new receptor and determine if it represented a viable drug target. Taking advantage of the vast literature on the function of histamine, a search for histamine activity that did not appear to be mediated by the other three histamine receptors was undertaken. From this asthma and pruritus emerged as areas of particular interest. Histamine has long been suspected to play a role in the pathogenesis of asthma, but antihistamines that target the H1 and H2 receptors have not been shown to be effective for this condition. The use of selective ligands in animal models of asthma has now potentially filled this gap by showing a role for the H4R in mediating lung function and inflammation. A similar story exists for chronic pruritus associated with conditions such as atopic dermatitis. Antihistamines that target the H1 receptor are effective in reducing acute pruritus, but are ineffective in pruritus experienced by patients with atopic dermatitis. As for asthma, animal models have now suggested a role for the H4R in mediating pruritic responses, with antagonists of the H4R reducing pruritus in a number of different conditions. The anti-pruritic effect of H4R antagonists has recently been shown in human clinical studies, validating the preclinical findings in the animal models. A selective H4R antagonist inhibited histamine-induced pruritus in health volunteers and reduced pruritus in patients with atopic dermatitis. The history to date of the H4R provides an excellent example of the deorphanization of a novel receptor and the translation of this into clinical efficacy in humans. © 2015 Thurmond.

Hu C.,Janssen Research and Development LLC
CPT: Pharmacometrics and Systems Pharmacology | Year: 2014

Exposure-response modeling facilitates effective dosing regimen selection in clinical drug development, where the end points are often disease scores and not physiological variables. Appropriate models need to be consistent with pharmacology and identifiable from the time courses of available data. This article describes a general framework of applying mechanism-based models to various types of clinical end points. Placebo and drug model parameterization, interpretation, and assessment are discussed with a focus on the indirect response models. © 2014 ASCPT All rights reserved 2163-8306/14.

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