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Beerse, Belgium

Hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF) is an oxygen-sensitive dimeric transcription factor that responds to pathophysiologically low O2 tensions via up-regulation, which leads to an orchestrated biological response to hypoxia. The HIF prolyl hydroxylase domain (PHD) enzymes are non-heme, iron-containing dioxygenases requiring for activity both molecular oxygen and 2-oxoglutarate that, under normoxia, selectively hydroxylate proline residues of HIF, initiating proteosomal degradation of the latter. The dependence of HIF protein levels on the concentration of O2 present, mediated by the PHD enzymes, forms the basis for one of the most significant biological sensor systems of tissue oxygenation in response to ischemic and inflammatory events. Consequently, pharmacological inhibition of PHD enzymes, leading to stabilization of HIF, may be of considerable therapeutic potential in treating conditions of tissue stress and injury. This Perspective reviews the PHDs and small molecule drug discovery efforts. A critical view of this challenging field is offered, which addresses potential concerns and highlights exciting possibilities for the future. © 2013 American Chemical Society. Source

Bouwknecht J.A.,Janssen Pharmaceutical
European Journal of Pharmacology | Year: 2015

The review describes a personal journey through 25 years of animal research with a focus on the contribution of rodent models for anxiety and depression to the development of new medicines in a drug discovery environment. Several classic acute models for mood disorders are briefly described as well as chronic stress and disease-induction models. The paper highlights a variety of factors that influence the quality and consistency of behavioral data in a laboratory setting. The importance of meta-analysis techniques for study validation (tolerance interval) and assay sensitivity (Monte Carlo modeling) are demonstrated by examples that use historic data. It is essential for successful discovery of new potential drugs to maintain a high level of control in animal research and to bridge knowledge across in silico modeling, and in vitro and in vivo assays. Today, drug discovery is a highly dynamic environment in search of new types of treatments and new animal models which should be guided by enhanced two-way translation between bench and bed. Although productivity has been disappointing in the search of new and better medicines in psychiatry over the past decades, there has been and will always be an important role for in vivo models in-between preclinical discovery and clinical development. The right balance between good science and proper judgment versus a decent level of innovation, assay development and two-way translation will open the doors to a very bright future. © 2014 Elsevier B.V. Source

Janssen Pharmaceutical | Date: 2016-01-14

The invention is directed to compounds of Formula I: wherein Z, X, J, R

Salvadore G.,Janssen Pharmaceutical | Singh J.B.,Janssen Pharmaceutical
CNS Neuroscience and Therapeutics | Year: 2013

Several recent studies have shown that a single intravenous subanesthetic dose of ketamine, a NMDA receptor antagonist, exerts rapid antidepressant effects in patients with treatment refractory mood disorders and reduces suicidal ideation. Those insights have fueled tremendous excitement in the efforts to elucidate the mechanism underlying ketamine's antidepressant properties in animal models of depression, as well as in humans through the use of brain imaging as well as peripheral blood measurements. For example, there is emerging evidence that ketamine's antidepressant properties rely on increasing AMPA signaling and rapidly inducing synaptogenesis. While pilot clinical studies are promising, a number of critical questions still remain unanswered. They relate to the safe and effective use of ketamine in patients with mood disorders regarding the optimal dose range, modality and method of administration for acute and long-term maintenance of effect, and the biomarkers associated with response/nonresponse. In this review article, we first summarize the clinical evidence about the use of ketamine in mood disorders, as well as preclinical and humans studies which investigated the mechanisms of action of ketamine, and predictors of antidepressant response in clinical populations. We then provide a critical overview of the knowledge gaps about the use of ketamine in depression and suggest some future research directions for the investigation of ketamine as a promising tool to develop novel more effective and fast acting antidepressants. © 2013 John Wiley & Sons Ltd. Source

Gibbs A.C.,Janssen Pharmaceutical
Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2014

The existing structure-function paradigm of drug discovery has been evolving toward the essential incorporation of dynamics data. This new functional dynamics paradigm emphasizes conformational entropy as a driving force of protein function and intermolecular recognition. Conformational dynamics (a proxy of conformational entropy) impacts the degree of protein (dis)order and the constitution of the conformational ensemble, the mechanisms of allostery and drug resistance, and the free energy of ligand binding. Specific protein and ligand conformations facilitate favorable, reciprocal interactions. The number of protein and ligand conformers that exhibit favorable binding interactions will vary from system to system. All binding scenarios can modulate protein dynamics by various levels of enthalpic and entropic contribution, with significant influence on the functional dynamics of the system. Analysis and consideration of resulting changes of activity, signaling, catalysis, and subsequent phenotypic outcome are powerful motivations in the drug design process. © 2014 American Chemical Society. Source

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