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Oh J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Kim J.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | Park J.G.,Sungkyunkwan University | Yi Y.-S.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 8 more authors.
Mediators of Inflammation | Year: 2013

Lutein is a naturally occurring carotenoid with antioxidative, antitumorigenic, antiangiogenic, photoprotective, hepatoprotective, and neuroprotective properties. Although the anti-inflammatory effects of lutein have previously been described, the mechanism of its anti-inflammatory action has not been fully elucidated. Therefore, in the present study, we aimed to investigate the regulatory activity of lutein in the inflammatory responses of skin-derived keratinocytes or macrophages and to elucidate the mechanism of its inhibitory action. Lutein significantly reduced several skin inflammatory responses, including increased expression of interleukin-(IL-) 6 from LPS-treated macrophages, upregulation of cyclooxygenase-(COX-) 2 from interferon-γ/tumor necrosis-factor-(TNF-) α-treated HaCaT cells, and the enhancement of matrix-metallopeptidase-(MMP-) 9 level in UV-irradiated keratinocytes. By evaluating the intracellular signaling pathway and the nuclear transcription factor levels, we determined that lutein inhibited the activation of redox-sensitive AP-1 pathway by suppressing the activation of p38 and c-Jun-N-terminal kinase (JNK). Evaluation of the radical and ROS scavenging activities further revealed that lutein was able to act as a strong anti-oxidant. Taken together, our findings strongly suggest that lutein-mediated AP-1 suppression and anti-inflammatory activity are the result of its strong antioxidative and p38/JNK inhibitory activities. These findings can be applied for the preparation of anti-inflammatory and cosmetic remedies for inflammatory diseases of the skin. © 2013 Jueun Oh et al.

Lee J.-E.,Korea University | Lee B.-J.,Amore Pacific | Hwang J.-A.,Amore Pacific | Ko K.-S.,Jangwon Co. | And 4 more authors.
Journal of Agricultural and Food Chemistry | Year: 2011

The dependence of global green tea metabolome on plucking positions was investigated through 1H nuclear magnetic resonance (NMR) analysis coupled with multivariate statistical data set. Pattern recognition methods, such as principal component analysis (PCA) and orthogonal projection on latent structure-discriminant analysis (OPLS-DA), were employed for a finding metabolic discrimination among fresh green tea leaves plucked at different positions from young to old leaves. In addition to clear metabolic discrimination among green tea leaves, elevation in theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid levels but reductions in catechins, such as epicatechin (EC), epigallocatechin (EGC), epicatechin-3-gallate (ECG), and epigallocatechin-3-gallate (EGCG), glucose, and sucrose levels were observed, as the green tea plant grows up. On the other hand, the younger the green tea leaf is, the more theanine, caffeine, and gallic acid but the lesser catechins accumlated in the green tea leaf, revealing a reverse assocation between theanine and catechins levels due to incorporaton of theanine into catechins with growing up green tea plant. Moreover, as compared to the tea leaf, the observation of marked high levels of theanine and low levels of catechins in green tea stems exhibited a distinct tea plant metabolism between the tea leaf and the stem. This metabolomic approach highlights taking insight to global metabolic dependence of green tea leaf on plucking position, thereby providing distinct information on green tea production with specific tea quality. © 2011 American Chemical Society.

Kim H.-J.,Amore Pacific | Kim H.-J.,Sungkyunkwan University | Chang H.,Amore Pacific | Han S.H.,Sungkyunkwan University | And 10 more authors.
International Journal of Molecular Sciences | Year: 2014

(-)-Epigallocatechin-3-O-gallate (EGCG) has long been known as a potent inducer of keratinocyte differentiation. Although its molecular mechanisms have been extensively studied, its actions on human skin remain to be elucidated. In this study, we demonstrated that methylated EGCG and EGCG increase the expression of klotho, and that klotho functions as a downstream target of EGCG and methylated EGCG in keratinocyte differentiation. We demonstrated that methylated EGCG3 and EGCG induce morphological changes in normal human epidermal keratinocytes (NHEKs) that are related to up-regulation of klotho expression. We also demonstrated that a klotho-induced keratinocyte differentiation marker in NHEKs is inhibited by H-89, a protein kinase (PKA) inhibitor. These results suggest that methylated EGCG and EGCG may function as inducers of keratinocyte differentiation via transcriptional regulation of the klotho protein. © 2014 by the authors; licensee MDPI, Basel, Switzerland.

Choung M.-G.,Kangwon National University | Lee M.-S.,Jangwon Co.
Food Science and Biotechnology | Year: 2011

The amount of catechins and caffeine in green tea are considered a standard of quality evaluation for green tea. The objectives of this study were to investigate the optimal conditions for simultaneous extraction of catechins and caffeine and to compare their quantity and composition within the exotic tea varieties. Moreover, 8 tea varieties of exotic origin were tested with the optimal extraction conditions found in this study. Regarding the caffeine and catechins contents, a 2 h room temperature extraction using a 2% phosphoric acid-40% EtOH solution was the most suitable simultaneous extraction method. The total catechins and caffeine contents of the tea leaves ranged 44.25-64.80 and 9.26-13.11 mg/g, respectively. The optimal extraction method of catechins and caffeine in tea leaves may be used for further studies and breeding of high quality tea plants. © KoSFoST and Springer 2011.

Choung M.-G.,Kangwon National University | Hwang Y.-S.,Kangwon National University | Lee M.-S.,Jangwon Co. | Lee J.,U.S. Department of Agriculture | And 2 more authors.
International Journal of Food Science and Technology | Year: 2014

Catechins from green tea (Camellia sinensis L.) have received considerable attention due to their beneficial effects on human health, such as antioxidant and anticancer activities. Optimisation of extraction conditions of the catechins from green tea leaves was performed using different solvents (ethanol or distilled water), different extraction methods (ultrasound-assisted, room temperature or reflux extractions) and various extraction times (0.5-24 h). The optimal extraction conditions were determined using 40% ethanol with ultrasound-assisted extraction method for 2 h at 40 °C. In addition, two isolation methods for the recovery of catechins from green tea extracts were compared using different solvent combinations (chloroform/ethyl acetate versus ethyl acetate/dichloromethane). The results showed that the ethyl acetate/dichloromethane system could achieve much higher content of catechins than the other isolation approaches, indicating the method that extract catechins first with organic solvent such as ethyl acetate before removing caffeine is much effective than removing caffeine first when organic solvents are used for the recovery of catechins without caffeine from green tea extracts. © 2013 Institute of Food Science and Technology.

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