Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior

Westwood, CA, United States

Jane and Terry Semel Institute for Neuroscience and Human Behavior

Westwood, CA, United States
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Ducci F.,King's College | Ducci F.,St George's, University of London | Kaakinen M.,University of Oulu | Pouta A.,Finnish National Institute for Health and Welfare | And 19 more authors.
Biological Psychiatry | Year: 2011

Background: CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 and TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2 gene-clusters influence smoking behavior. Our aim was to test developmental changes in their effects as well as the interplays between them and with nongenetic factors. Methods: Participants included 4762 subjects from a general population-based, prospective Northern Finland 1966 Birth Cohort (NFBC 1966). Smoking behavior was collected at age 14 and 31 years. Information on maternal smoking, socioeconomic status, and novelty seeking were also collected. Structural equation modeling was used to construct an integrative etiologic model including genetic and nongenetic factors. Results: Several single nucleotide polymorphisms in both gene-clusters were significantly associated with smoking. The most significant were in CHRNA3 (rs1051730, p = 1.1 × 10-5) and in TTC12 (rs10502172, p = 9.1 × 10-6). CHRNA3-rs1051730[A] was more common among heavy/regular smokers than nonsmokers with similar effect-sizes at age 14 years (odds ratio [95% CI]: 1.27 [1.06-1.52]) and 31 years (1.28 [1.13-1.44]). TTC12-rs10502172[G] was more common among smokers than nonsmokers with stronger association at 14 years (1.33 [1.11-1.60]) than 31 years (1.14 [1.02-1.28]). In adolescence, carriers of three-four risk alleles at either CHRNA3-rs1051730 or TTC12-rs10502172 had almost threefold odds of smoking regularly than subjects with no risk alleles. TTC12-rs10502172 effect on smoking in adulthood was mediated by its effect on smoking in adolescence and via novelty seeking. Effect of CHRNA3-rs1051730 on smoking in adulthood was direct. Conclusions: TTC12-ANKK1-DRD2s seemed to influence smoking behavior mainly in adolescence, and its effect is partially mediated by personality characteristics promoting drug-seeking behavior. In contrast, CHRNA5-CHRNA3-CHRNB4 is involved in the transition toward heavy smoking in mid-adulthood and in smoking persistence. Factors related to familial and social disadvantages were strong independent predictors of smoking. © 2011 Society of Biological Psychiatry.

Kratter I.H.,Gladstone | Kratter I.H.,University of California at San Francisco | Kratter I.H.,University of Pittsburgh | Zahed H.,Gladstone | And 20 more authors.
Journal of Clinical Investigation | Year: 2016

Huntington's disease (HD) is a progressive, adult-onset neurodegenerative disease caused by a polyglutamine (polyQ) expansion in the N-terminal region of the protein huntingtin (HTT). There are no cures or disease-modifying therapies for HD. HTT has a highly conserved Akt phosphorylation site at serine 421, and prior work in HD models found that phosphorylation at S421 (S421-P) diminishes the toxicity of mutant HTT (mHTT) fragments in neuronal cultures. However, whether S421-P affects the toxicity of mHTT in vivo remains unknown. In this work, we used murine models to investigate the role of S421-P in HTT-induced neurodegeneration. Specifically, we mutated the human mHTT gene within a BAC to express either an aspartic acid or an alanine at position 421, mimicking tonic phosphorylation (mHTT-S421D mice) or preventing phosphorylation (mHTT-S421A mice), respectively. Mimicking HTT phosphorylation strongly ameliorated mHTT-induced behavioral dysfunction and striatal neurodegeneration, whereas neuronal dysfunction persisted when S421 phosphorylation was blocked. We found that S421 phosphorylation mitigates neurodegeneration by increasing proteasome-dependent turnover of mHTT and reducing the presence of a toxic mHTT conformer. These data indicate that S421 is a potent modifier of mHTT toxicity and offer in vivo validation for S421 as a therapeutic target in HD.

Desrivieres S.,King's College London | Lourdusamy A.,King's College London | Muller C.,King's College London | Ducci F.,King's College London | And 17 more authors.
Addiction Biology | Year: 2011

Onset of alcohol use at an early age increases the risk for later alcohol dependence. We investigated the role of the glucocorticoid receptor (GR) gene (NR3C1) in onset of alcohol use and abuse in 14-year-old adolescents (n = 4534). Several NR3C1 polymorphisms were associated with onset of alcohol drinking or drunkenness at this age. Strongest associations were observed in females, with one marker (rs244465) remaining significant after correction formultiple testing (P adj = 0.0067; odds ratio = 1.7, for drunkenness). Our data provide the first evidence that GR modulates initiation of alcohol abuse and reveal a polymorphism that might contribute to susceptibility to addiction. © 2010 The Authors, Addiction Biology © 2010 Society for the Study of Addiction.

Pillas D.,Imperial College London | Pillas D.,Economic and Social Research Council | Pillas D.,University College London | Hoggart C.J.,Imperial College London | And 39 more authors.
PLoS Genetics | Year: 2010

Tooth development is a highly heritable process which relates to other growth and developmental processes, and which interacts with the development of the entire craniofacial complex. Abnormalities of tooth development are common, with tooth agenesis being the most common developmental anomaly in humans. We performed a genome-wide association study of time to first tooth eruption and number of teeth at one year in 4,564 individuals from the 1966 Northern Finland Birth Cohort (NFBC1966) and 1,518 individuals from the Avon Longitudinal Study of Parents and Children (ALSPAC). We identified 5 loci at P<5×10 -8, and 5 with suggestive association (P<5×10-6). The loci included several genes with links to tooth and other organ development (KCNJ2, EDA, HOXB2, RAD51L1, IGF2BP1, HMGA2, MSRB3). Genes at four of the identified loci are implicated in the development of cancer. A variant within the HOXB gene cluster associated with occlusion defects requiring orthodontic treatment by age 31 years. © 2010 Pillas et al.

Micewicz E.D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Bahattab O.S.O.,University of Leicester | Willars G.B.,University of Leicester | Waring A.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 7 more authors.
European Journal of Medicinal Chemistry | Year: 2015

Abstract A small library of truncated/lipid-conjugated neuromedin U (NmU) analogs was synthesized and tested in vitro using an intracellular calcium signaling assay. The selected, most active analogs were then tested in vivo, and showed potent anorexigenic effects in a diet-induced obese (DIO) mouse model. The most promising compound, NM4-C16 was effective in a once-weekly-dose regimen. Collectively, our findings suggest that short, lipidated analogs of NmU are suitable leads for the development of novel anti-obesity therapeutics. © 2015 Elsevier Masson SAS.

Micewicz E.D.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ratikan J.A.,University of California at Los Angeles | Waring A.J.,University of California at Los Angeles | Waring A.J.,University of California at Irvine | And 5 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

A small library of monovalent and bivalent Smac mimics was synthesized based on 2 types of monomers, with general structure NMeAla-Xaa-Pro-BHA (Xaa = Cys or Lys). Position 2 of the compounds was utilized to dimerize both types of monomers employing various bis-reactive linkers, as well as to modify selected compounds with lipids. The resulting library was screened in vitro against metastatic human breast cancer cell line MDA-MB-231, and the two most active compounds selected for in vivo studies. The most active lipid-conjugated analogue M11, showed in vivo activity while administered both subcutaneously and orally. Collectively, our findings suggest that lipidation may be a viable approach in the development of new Smac-based therapeutic leads. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd.

Chua K.,University of California at Los Angeles | Fung E.,University of California at Los Angeles | Fung E.,University of Southern California | Micewicz E.D.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 4 more authors.
Bioorganic and Medicinal Chemistry Letters | Year: 2015

Minihepcidins are in vitro and in vivo active mimetics of iron-regulatory hormone hepcidin. They contain various unusual amino acids including: N-substituted, β-homo-, and d-amino acids with their combination depending on particular minihepcidin. In the current study, we sought to limit the use of unusual/more expensive amino acids derivatives by peptide cyclization. Novel cyclic mimetics of hepcidin were synthesized and tested in vitro and showed activity at low nanomolar concentration. Nonetheless, the most active cyclic compound (mHS17) is approximately ten times less active than the parental minihepcidin PR73. Collectively, our findings suggest that cyclization is viable approach in the synthesis of hepcidin mimetics. © 2015 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.

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