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Tseng H.-C.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Bui V.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Man Y.-G.,Bon Secours Cancer Institute | Cacalano N.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 2 more authors.
Frontiers in Immunology | Year: 2014

In this paper, we provide evidence that anergized NK cells through secreted factors and direct cell-cell contact have the ability to induce differentiation of healthy dental pulp stem cells and stem cell of apical papillae as well as transformed oral squamous cancer stem cell (OSCSC) and Mia-Paca-2, poorly differentiated stem-like pancreatic tumors, resulting in their resistance to NK cell-mediated cytotoxicity. Induction of NK cell resistance and differentiation in the stem cells correlated with the increased expression of CD54, B7H1, and MHC class I, and mediated by the combination of membrane-bound or secreted IFN-γ and TNF-α from the NK cells since antibodies to both cytokines and not each one alone were able to inhibit differentiation or resistance to NK cells. Similarly, antibodies to both TNF-α and IFN-γ were required to prevent NK-mediated inhibition of cell growth, and restored the numbers of the stem cells to the levels obtained when stem cells were cultured in the absence of anergized NK cells. Interestingly, the effect of anti-IFN-γ antibody in the absence of anti-TNF-α antibody was more dominant for the prevention of increase in surface receptor expression since its addition abrogated the increase in CD54, B7H1, and MHC class I surface expression. Antibodies to CD54 or LFA-1 was unable to inhibit differentiation whereas antibodies to MHC class I but not B7H1 increased cytotoxicity of well-differentiated oral squamous carcinoma cells as well as OSCSCs differentiated by the IL-2 + anti-CD16 mAb-treated NK cells whereas it inhibited the cytotoxicity of NK cells against OSCSCs. Thus, NK cells may inhibit the progression of cancer by killing and/or differentiation of cancer stem cells, which severely halt cancer growth, invasion, and metastasis. © 2014 Tseng, Bui, Man, Cacalano and Jewett. Source

Ruangsri S.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Ruangsri S.,University of California at Los Angeles | Ruangsri S.,Khon Kaen University | Lin A.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | And 5 more authors.
Journal of Biological Chemistry | Year: 2011

Painful peripheral neuropathy is a significant clinical problem; however, its pathological mechanism and effective treatments remain elusive. Increased peripheral expression of tetrodotoxin- resistant voltage-gated sodium channel 1.8 (NaV1.8) has been shown to associate with chronic pain symptoms in humans and experimental animals. Sciatic nerve entrapment (SNE) injury was used to develop neuropathic pain symptoms in rats, resulting in increased NaV1.8 mRNA in the injured nerve but not in dorsal root ganglia (DRG). To study the role of NaV1.8 mRNA in the pathogenesis of SNE-induced painful neuropathy, NaV1.8 shRNA vector was delivered by subcutaneous injection of cationized gelatin/plasmid DNA polyplex into the rat hindpaw and its subsequent retrograde transport via sciatic nerve to DRG. This in vivo NaV1.8 shRNA treatment reversibly and repeatedly attenuated the SNE-induced pain symptoms, an effect that became apparent following a distinct lag period of 3-4 days and lasted for 4-6 days before returning to pretreatment levels. Surprisingly, apparent knockdown of NaV1.8 mRNA occurred only in the injured nerve, not in the DRG, during the pain alleviation period. Levels of heteronuclear NaV1.8 RNA were unaffected by SNE or shRNA treatments, suggesting that transcription of the Scn10a gene encoding NaV1.8 was unchanged. Based on these data, we postulate that increased axonal mRNA transport results in accumulation of functional NaV1.8 protein in the injured nerve and the development of painful neuropathy symptoms. Thus, targeted delivery of agents that interfere with axonal NaV1.8 mRNA may represent effective neuropathic pain treatments. © 2011 by The American Society for Biochemistry and Molecular Biology Inc. Source

Xi G.,Northwestern University | Robinson E.,Northwestern University | Robinson E.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Robinson E.,University of California at Los Angeles | And 13 more authors.
Nanomedicine: Nanotechnology, Biology, and Medicine | Year: 2014

This study examined a novel drug delivery system for treatment of malignant brain gliomas: DOX complexed with nanodiamonds (ND-Dox), and administered via convection-enhanced delivery (CED). Drug retention and toxicity were examined in glioma cell lines, and distribution, retention and toxicity were examined in normal rat parenchyma. Efficacy was assessed in a bioluminescence rodent tumor model. NDs markedly enhanced DOX uptake and retention in glioma cells. ND-Dox delivered via CED extended DOX retention and localized DOX toxicity in normal rodent parenchyma, and was significantly more efficient at killing tumor cells than uncomplexed DOX. Outcomes from this work suggest that CED of ND-Dox is a promising approach for brain tumor treatment. From the Clinical Editor: In this paper, nanodiamonds were utilized to enhance delivery of DOX in a preclinical glioma model using a convection-enhanced delivery method, demonstrating remarkably enhanced efficacy. © 2014 Elsevier Inc. Source

Aita H.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Tsukimura N.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Yamada M.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | Hori N.,Jane and Jerry Weintraub Center for Reconstructive Biotechnology | And 6 more authors.
Journal of Biomedical Materials Research - Part A | Year: 2010

This study examines the cytotoxicity of bone cement extract to osteoblasts and the potential detoxification and restoration of osteoblastic function by an antioxidant amino acid, N-acetyl cysteine (NAC). The osteoblastic cells derived from rat femurs were cultured with extract from polymethyl methacrylate (PMMA)-based bone cement. The calcein and ethidium homodimer staining of the cells after 24-h incubation showed that 23.0% of the cells were dead in the culture with bone cement extract, while the addition of 5 mM NAC into the culture reduced the percentage to 4.3%. Annexin V and propidium iodide-based flow cytometric analysis also revealed that the apoptotic cells present at 15.8% in the culture with bone cement extract was reduced to 2.4% in the culture cotreated with bone cement extract and NAC. Severely suppressed alkaline phosphatase activity and matrix mineralization in the culture with bone cement extract (reduced to 10% and 5%, respectively, compared with the control culture) were restored to a normal level when treated with 5 mM NAC. The bone cement extractinduced, downregulated expression of osteoblastic genes, such as alkaline phosphatase, collagen I, and osteocalcin, was also restored to the baseline level by cotreatment with NAC. The data indicated that the addition of NAC into acrylic bone cement extract remarkably ameliorated the cytotoxicity to osteoblasts and restored their phenotype and function to a biologically significant degree, suggesting the potential usefulness of NAC in developing more biocompatible acrylic bone cement. © 2009 Wiley Periodicals, Inc. Source

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