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Bilāspur, India

Kwan G.F.,Boston University | Kwan G.F.,Harvard University | Mayosi B.M.,University of Cape Town | Mocumbi A.O.,Eduardo Mondlane University | And 8 more authors.
Circulation | Year: 2016

The poorest billion people are distributed throughout the world, though most are concentrated in rural sub-Saharan Africa and South Asia. Cardiovascular disease (CVD) data can be sparse in low- and middle-income countries beyond urban centers. Despite this urban bias, CVD registries from the poorest countries have long revealed a predominance of nonatherosclerotic stroke, hypertensive heart disease, nonischemic and Chagas cardiomyopathies, rheumatic heart disease, and congenital heart anomalies, among others. Ischemic heart disease has been relatively uncommon. Here, we summarize what is known about the epidemiology of CVDs among the world's poorest people and evaluate the relevance of global targets for CVD control in this population. We assessed both primary data sources, and the 2013 Global Burden of Disease Study modeled estimates in the world's 16 poorest countries where 62% of the population are among the poorest billion. We found that ischemic heart disease accounted for only 12% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly disability-adjusted life years (DALYs) in the poorest countries, compared with 51% of DALYs in high-income countries. We found that as little as 53% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (1629/3049 DALYs per 100 000) was attributed to behavioral or metabolic risk factors in the poorest countries (eg, in Niger, 82% of the population among the poorest billion) compared with 85% of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden (4439/5199 DALYs) in high-income countries. Further, of the combined CVD and congenital heart anomaly burden, 34% was accrued in people under age 30 years in the poorest countries, while only 3% is accrued under age 30 years in high-income countries. We conclude although the current global targets for noncommunicable disease and CVD control will help diminish premature CVD death in the poorest populations, they are not sufficient. Specifically, the current framework (1) excludes deaths of people <30 years of age and deaths attributable to congenital heart anomalies, and (2) emphasizes interventions to prevent and treat conditions attributed to behavioral and metabolic risks factors. We recommend a complementary strategy for the poorest populations that targets premature death at younger ages, addresses environmental and infectious risks, and introduces broader integrated health system interventions, including cardiac surgery for congenital and rheumatic heart disease. © 2016 American Heart Association, Inc. Source

Bhargava A.,Himalayan Institute of Medical science | Chatterjee M.,Krishak Maitri Hospital | Jain Y.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog | Chatterjee B.,Himalayan Institute of Medical science | And 8 more authors.
PLoS ONE | Year: 2013

Under-nutrition is a known risk factor for TB and can adversely affect treatment outcomes. However, data from India are sparse, despite the high burden of TB as well as malnutrition in India. We assessed the nutritional status at the time of diagnosis and completion of therapy, and its association with deaths during TB treatment, in a consecutive cohort of 1695 adult patients with pulmonary tuberculosis in rural India during 2004 - 2009.Multivariable logistic regression was used to obtain adjusted estimates of the association of nutritional status with deaths during treatment. At the time of diagnosis, median BMI and body weights were 16.0 kg/m2and 42.1 kg in men, and 15.0 kg/m2and 34.1 kg in women, indicating that 80% of women and 67% of men had moderate to severe under-nutrition (BMI<17.0 kg/m2). Fifty two percent of the patients (57% of men and 48% of women) had stunting indicating chronic under-nutrition. Half of women and one third of men remained moderately to severely underweight at the end of treatment. 60 deaths occurred in 1179 patients (5%) in whom treatment was initiated. Severe under-nutrition at diagnosis was associated with a 2 fold higher risk of death. Overall, a majority of patients had evidence of chronic severe under-nutrition at diagnosis, which persisted even after successful treatment in a significant proportion of them. These findings suggest the need for nutritional support during treatment of pulmonary TB in this rural population. © 2013 Bhargava et al. Source

Madhavi Y.,National Institute of science | Puliyel J.M.,St. Stephens Hospital | Mathew J.L.,Advanced Paediatrics Center | Raghuram N.,University of Delhi | And 28 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2010

India has over a century old tradition of development and production of vaccines. The Government rightly adopted self-sufficiency in vaccine production and self-reliance in vaccine technology as its policy objectives in 1986. However, in the absence of a full-fledged vaccine policy, there have been concerns related to demand and supply, manufacture vs. import, role of public and private sectors, choice of vaccines, new and combination vaccines, universal vs. selective vaccination, routine immunization vs. special drives, cost-benefit aspects, regulatory issues, logistics etc. The need for a comprehensive and evidence based vaccine policy that enables informed decisions on all these aspects from the public health point of view brought together doctors, scientists, policy analysts, lawyers and civil society representatives to formulate this policy paper for the consideration of the Government. This paper evolved out of the first ever ICMR-NISTADS national brainstorming workshop on vaccine policy held during 4-5 June, 2009 in New Delhi, and subsequent discussions over email for several weeks, before being adopted unanimously in the present form. Source

Agrawal A.S.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog | Kataria R.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog
Indian Journal of Surgery | Year: 2015

Persistent Müllerian duct syndrome is a rare condition occasionally encountered in men with normal phenotype but with presence of Müllerian duct structures. In India, owing to neglect and lack of facilities, we encounter this condition in adult males. We encountered on the same day in the operation theatre two phenotypic males aged 40 years and 10 months who had inguinal hernia on one side along with contralateral undescended testis. Both patients intraoperatively had uterus with fallopian tubes and underwent subtotal hysterectomy with preservation of vas. Repair of inguinal hernia with fixation of the testis in the scrotum was done. Though rare, every surgeon operating upon inguinal hernia or undescended testes or cryptorchidism needs to know about the presence of the uterus in a phenotypic male patient at any age. High degree of suspicion and awareness is needed to diagnose this condition. Early treatment is needed to maintain fertility and to prevent the occurrence of malignancy in remnant müllerian structures. © 2014, Association of Surgeons of India. Source

Jain Y.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog | Kataria R.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog | Patil S.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog | Kadam S.,Jan Swasthya Sahyog | And 4 more authors.
Indian Journal of Medical Research | Year: 2015

Tribals are the most marginalised social category in the country and there is little and scattered information on the actual burden and pattern of illnesses they suffer from. This study provides information on burden and pattern of diseases among tribals, and whether these can be linked to their nutritional status, especially in particularly vulnerable tribal groups (PVTG) seen at a community health programme being run in the tribal areas of chhattisgarh and Madhya Pradesh States of India. This community based programme, known as Jan Swasthya Sahyog (JSS) has been serving people in over 2500 villages in rural central India. It was found that the tribals had significantly higher proportion of all tuberculosis, sputum positive tuberculosis, severe hypertension, illnesses that require major surgery as a primary therapeutic intervention and cancers than non tribals. The proportions of people with rheumatic heart disease, sickle cell disease and epilepsy were not significantly different between different social groups. Nutritional levels of tribals were poor. Tribals in central India suffer a disproportionate burden of both communicable and non communicable diseases amidst worrisome levels of undernutrition. There is a need for universal health coverage with preferential care for the tribals, especially those belonging to the PVTG. Further, the high level of undernutrition demands a more augmented and universal Public Distribution System. © 2015, Indian Council of Medical Research. All rights reserved. Source

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