Jammu, India
Jammu, India

The University of Jammu was established in 1969 by an Act of the State Legislature which effectively split the Jammu and Kashmir University into the separate Universities of Jammu and Kashmir. The University is at present located on the banks of the Tawi River. The university offers undergraduate, postgraduate and doctoral programs; it confers honorary degrees to persons of exceptional calibre. It also affiliates and recognizes colleges. More recently, the University has set up satellite campuses in Bhaderwah, Kathua and Poonch with an accent on vocational courses. Of these campuses, the Bhaderwah Campus at Sungli village is the first to have been formally inaugurated .The University says that it "is open to all classes and creeds with the sole objective to carry people from darkness to light. Wikipedia.

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Gupta P.,Jammu University | Paul S.,Jammu University
Catalysis Today | Year: 2014

This review deals with the general discussion on green chemistry and catalysis; and solid acid catalysts. Various Lewis and Brønsted solid acid catalysts reported in the last few years for various synthetic protocols have been discussed in this review. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.


Akram M.,Jammu University
Journal of Medicinal Food | Year: 2013

Ketone bodies are produced in the liver and are utilized in other tissues in the body as an energy source when hypoglycemia occurs in the body. There are three ketone bodies: acetoacetate, beta hydroxy butyrate, and acetone. Ketone bodies are usually present in the blood, and their level increases during fasting and starvation. They are also found in the blood of neonates and pregnant women. In diabetic ketoacidosis, high levels of ketone bodies are produced in response to low insulin levels and high levels of counter-regulatory hormones. © 2013 Mary Ann Liebert, Inc., and Korean Society of Food Science and Nutrition.


Akram M.,Jammu University
Journal of Cancer Education | Year: 2013

Glycolysis is a universal pathway in the living cells. The complete pathway of glycolysis was elucidated in 1940. This pathway is often referred to as Embden-Meyerhof pathway in honor of the two biochemists that made a major contribution to the knowledge of glycolysis. The objective of the study was to review the published literature on glycolysis and relation to cancer. The material for this review was taken mostly from up-to-date biochemistry textbooks and electronic journals. To collect publications, PubMed and the Cochrane database of systematic reviews were used. Some other relevant references were collected from personal database of papers on glycolysis and cancer. Several glycolytic inhibitors are currently in preclinical and clinical development. Inhibition of glycolysis in cancer cells is a novel strategy to overcome drug resistance associated with mitochondrial respiratory defect and hypoxia. This article is an important topic to be considered by cancer researchers and those who treat cancers. © Springer Science+Business Media New York 2013.


Akram M.,Jammu University
Journal of Membrane Biology | Year: 2013

Yarrow (Achillea millefolium L.) is an important medicinal plant with different pharmaceutical uses. A. millefolium has been used for centuries to treat various diseases including malaria, hepatitis and jaundice. A. millefolium is commonly prescribed to treat liver disorders. It is also used as an anti-inflammatory agent and is a hepatoprotective herb. A. millefolium is considered safe for supplemental use. It has antihepatotoxic effects also. It is prescribed as an astringent agent. It is prescribed in hemorrhoids, headache, bleeding disorders, bruises, cough, influenza, pneumonia, kidney stones, high blood pressure, menstrual disorders, fever, rheumatoid arthritis, gout, osteoarthritis, hemorrhagic disorders, chicken pox, cystitis, diabetes mellitus, indigestion, dyspepsia, eczema, psoriasis and boils. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Malaviya P.,Jammu University | Singh A.,Jammu University
Critical Reviews in Environmental Science and Technology | Year: 2011

Remediation of chromium-containing wastewaters is of special concern due to its toxicity and persistence in the environment. For chromium removal, various physicochemical as well as biological treatment technologies exist. As biological tools are likely to be spoiled by chromium toxicity, physicochemical technologies are extensively employed for chromium removal. On the basis of scattered informations available, the authors review aimed to provide a critical and qualitative picture of different physicochemical remediation technologies used for chromium removal along with some recent advancements achieved in this field. Among these technologies, precipitation, reduction, and adsorption are preferably utilized by the industrial sector on account of their economic nature along with chromium recovery; however, they present a disquieting problem of sludge generation and its disposal. In comparison, ion exchange and various membrane separation processes present a potential alternative, as they allow chromium recovery without impairing the environmental quality by the production of toxic sludge. However, due to problems such as membrane fouling and high costs, these processes show scant relevance in industries. Furthermore, the authors also discuss some latest technologies used for Cr removal (e.g., photocatalytic reduction, surfactant-based membranes, liquid membranes). Copyright © Taylor &Francis Group, LLC.


Amorphous carbon-silica composites bearing sulfonic acid derived from inexpensive natural organic compounds (glucose, maltose, cellulose, chitosan and starch) were prepared by partial carbonization followed by sulfonation and their catalytic activity was evaluated for the protection of aldehydes as 1,1-diacetates and for N-, O- and S-acylations under solvent-free conditions. Different biomaterials have been chosen, with a view to select the most active solid acid catalyst. Carbon-silica composites were characterized by FTIR, XRD and elemental analysis. Sulfonated carbon-silica composite derived from starch was found to be the most active and could be recycled for several runs without loss of significant activity. It was also characterized by TGA, SEM and TEM. © 2011 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


The title compounds, 9-substituted-3-aryl-5H,13aH-quinolino[3,2-f][1,2,4] triazolo[4,3-b][1,2,4]triazepines 8, are synthesized from 5-aryl-3,4-diamino-1, 2,4-triazoles 5 and 2-chloro-3-formylquinolines 7 in ionic liquid as solvent under microwave heating as well as using oil-bath heating at 80 °C. The products are obtained in the good to moderate yields and in high purity. These compounds have been screened for antifungal activity. The screening data indicate that the compounds 8a, 8b, 8c and 8d show excellent activity against Aspergillus niger 1000 μg concentration and Pencillium notatum species at 500 μg as well as 1000 μg concentrations whereas, these compounds show good to moderate activity against Aspergillus flavus and Rhizopus species at both the concentrations. Moreover, ionic liquid is found to be recyclable for at least three consecutive runs what makes the process cost-effective and economic that lead to the area of Green Chemistry as recyclability is one of the most important feature of Green Chemistry. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.


Silica-supported sulphonic acid catalysts were prepared and coated with ionic liquid, and their catalytic activities were evaluated for the one-pot synthesis of 1,4-dihydropyridines. Different catalysts with an ionic liquid layer (SCILLs) have been prepared with a view to determine the most active catalyst. Silica sulphonic acid coated with [BMIM][PF6] was found to be the most active catalyst and can be recycled for several runs without the loss of significant activity. It was characterized using SEM, TEM, TGA and FTIR. © 2015 The Royal Society of Chemistry.


Akram M.,Jammu University
Cell Biochemistry and Biophysics | Year: 2014

The citric acid cycle is the final common oxidative pathway for carbohydrates, fats and amino acids. It is the most important metabolic pathway for the energy supply to the body. TCA is the most important central pathway connecting almost all the individual metabolic pathways. In this review article, introduction, regulation and energetics of TCA cycle have been discussed. The present study was carried out to review literature on TCA cycle. © 2013 Springer Science+Business Media New York.


Preliminary results of ambient indoor/outdoor gamma dose rates measured for Muzaffarabad city, the state capital of Azad Kashmir, are presented. Measurements of indoor/outdoor environmental exposures were carried out using a portable Ludlum Model 19 Micrometer. Effect of altitude on measured values of gamma dose rates has also been investigated. Besides measuring the gamma dose rates for indoor and open environment, measurements have also been taken within two coal mines. Effects of lithology on gamma dose rates have also been investigated. For outdoor measurements, minimum and maximum gamma dose rates were found as 533 ± 4.33 and 1,143 ± 2.96 μGy y-1, while for indoor environment minimum and maximum gamma dose rate value were found as 533 ± 4.33 and 979 ± 3.2 μGy y-1. Average values of indoor and outdoor gamma dose rates were found as 761 ± 3.62 and 710 ± 3.75 μGy y-1. Gamma dose rates have also been calculated with altitude variations. Measured values of gamma dose rates show a weak positive correlation with altitude. For measurements made in coal mines, maximum gamma doses rate value was found as 3,490 ± 1.69 μGy y-1, situated at a height of 1,098 m, located at Sangri Mera. Results obtained from the current study show that annual effective doses from gamma radiation exposure does not pose health threat to the population of district Muzaffarabad. © 2013 Springer-Verlag Berlin Heidelberg.

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