Paton D.A.,Jamison Center |
Paton D.A.,South Pacific Whale Research Consortium |
Paton D.A.,Southern Cross University of Australia |
Kniest E.,South Pacific Whale Research Consortium |
Kniest E.,University of Newcastle
Journal of Cetacean Research and Management | Year: 2011
Humpback whales (Megaptera novaeangliae) that migrate past the east coast of Australia comprise part of Group V (E(i) breeding stock). From 1995 to 2004 an annual 16 day survey was conducted from Cape Byron (28°37'S, 153°38'E), the most easterly point on the Australian mainland, monitoring the peak of the humpback whale northern migration. The annual rate of increase between 1998 and 2004 of humpback whales observed off Cape Byron is 11.0% (95% CI 2.3-20.5%). This rate of increase is consistent with that recorded from other studies of the humpback whale population off the east coast of Australia. The large confidence intervals associated with this estimate are due to considerable inter-annual variation in counts. The most likely explanation for this being the short survey period, which may not have always coincided with the peak of migration, and in some years a large proportion of whales passed Cape Byron at a greater distance out to sea, making sightability more difficult.
Elsenbroich C.,University of Surrey |
Badham J.,Jamison Center
JASSS | Year: 2015
This article analyses a series of emails thanking Nigel for his stewardship of JASSS and the characteristics of their authors. It identifies a correlation between two measures of author activity in social simulation research, but no pattern between these activity measures and the email timing. Instead, the sequence suggests a classic standing ovation effect. © 2015 JASSS.
Broadhurst L.,Australian National Biodiversity Research |
Guja L.,Khan Research Laboratories |
North T.,Khan Research Laboratories |
Vanzella B.,Jamison Center |
And 4 more authors.
Ecological Management and Restoration | Year: 2015
It has been almost 15 years since concerns about the limited capacity of remnant native vegetation to supply the volumes of seed required to meet increasing restoration demands were first raised. Since that time little progress has been made towards addressing this constraint with the ongoing decline of native vegetation communities, especially since 2000, further challenging seed supply. We provide examples of the size of this demand for seed, as well as major issues associated with seed sourcing. We also discuss how invoking the concept of market forces to drive seed supply and demand is inappropriate and highlight the need for an industry body to oversee seed collection and utilisation standards. We further propose key actions that are required to secure the seed supply chain within the next 20 years to meet existing and future restoration targets. We argue that concerted, coordinated action at Commonwealth, State and regional levels are required to underpin effective future restoration outcomes. © 2015 Ecological Society of Australia and Wiley Publishing Asia Pty Ltd.
Sparrow A.M.,University of Tasmania |
Holt H.E.,Jamison Center |
Pearson W.,Australian Wine Research Institute |
Dambergs R.G.,Wine TQ |
Close D.C.,University of Tasmania
American Journal of Enology and Viticulture | Year: 2016
The phenolic composition, aroma, and sensory profiles were evaluated for Pinot noir wines made using four different maceration techniques that modified the floating pomace cap during fermentation: 1) daily plunging; 2) reduced skin particle size (accentuated cut edges, ACE); 3) submerged cap; and 4) ACE plus submerged cap. Throughout vinification, wines were analyzed using rapid analytical techniques to assess the following phenolic attributes: anthocyanin, tannin, nonbleachable pigments, color density, and hue. At six months bottle age (230 days postinoculation), sensory and aroma analyses were conducted on the finished wines. ACE macerated wines were found to have the highest proportion of red color, tannin, nonbleachable pigments, fruit and floral aromas, bitterness, and astringency. Submerging the pomace cap resulted in a lower concentration of phenolic components when compared to ACE wines, but resulted in a significantly higher phenolic content and dark cherry aromas and flavor when compared to the control wine. These findings suggest that the employment of either maceration technique has the potential to make a considerable difference to the wine style produced from a given parcel of fruit and may provide an opportunity to press wines earlier in the fermentation. Linear regression analyses were conducted to compare descriptive wine parameters with instrumental phenolic measurements and demonstrated several strong correlations: red color appearance was correlated with both color density (r2 = 0.95) and nonbleachable pigment (r2 = 0.95); dark fruit flavor was correlated with both color density (r2 = 0.85) and nonbleachable pigment (r2 = 0.85); and astringency was correlated with both tannin (r2 = 0.97) and nonbleachable pigment (r2 = 0.87), demonstrating that techniques of rapid chemical analysis were able to provide valuable insights into the sensory properties of the wine and may become useful tools for monitoring the development of the wine during vinification. While submerged cap vinification also increased the tannin and nonbleachable pigment profiles of the wine, ACE maceration was found to be significantly more effective and is likely to be more readily adapted for application in commercial wineries. © 2016 by the American Society for Enology and Viticulture. All rights reserved.
Noad M.J.,University of Queensland |
Dunlop R.A.,University of Queensland |
Paton D.,Jamison Center |
Cato D.H.,Defence Science and Technology Organisation, Australia |
Cato D.H.,University of Sydney
Journal of Cetacean Research and Management | Year: 2011
The humpback whales that migrate along the east coast of Australia were hunted to near-extinction in the 1950s and early 1960s. Two independent series of land-based surveys conducted over the last 25 years during the whales' northward migration along the Australian coastline have demonstrated a rapid increase in the size of the population. In 2004 we conducted a survey of the migratory population as a continuation of these series of surveys. Two methods of data analysis were used in line with the previous surveys, both for calculation of absolute and relative abundance. We consider the best estimates for 2004 to be 7,090±660 (95% CI) whales with an annual rate of increase of 10.6±0.5% (95% CI) for 1987-2004. The rate of increase agrees with those previously obtained for this population and demonstrates the continuation of a strong post-exploitation recovery. While there are still some uncertainties concerning the absolute abundance estimate and structure of this population, the rate of annual increase should be independent of these and highly robust.
Cummings J.,Jamison Center
Journal of Cleaner Production | Year: 2014
At the invitation of the editors to write an opinion piece, I drafted this to hopefully spark a conversation about the role of the industry in innovation and leading practice development, particularly in relation to land rehabilitation. Having been involved in land rehabilitation as a student, educator, researcher, practitioner and thinker over the last 20 years, my sense is there is a great opportunity for the minerals industry to rediscover its leadership role-which is linked to its social license to operate. © 2014 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Polanowski A.M.,Australian Antarctic Division |
Robinson-Laverick S.M.,Australian Antarctic Division |
Paton D.,Jamison Center |
Jarman S.N.,Australian Antarctic Division
Journal of Heredity | Year: 2012
Tyrosinase-negative oculocutaneous albinism (OCA1A) is characterized by lifelong white hair and skin, a phenotype that has been described in most mammalian species worldwide. Tyrosinase is the key enzyme in melanin biosynthesis, and mutations in the tyrosinase gene result in OCA1A. We examined sequence variation at exon 1 of the tyrosinase gene in 66 humpback whale samples collected from the east coast of Australia, including an anomalously white humpback whale known as "Migaloo." We identified 3 novel variants, including a cytosine deletion that results in a premature stop codon in exon 1. The deletion truncates the tyrosinase protein including the putative catalytic domains that are essential for tyrosinase enzymatic activity. Migaloo was homozygous for this deletion, suggesting that the albino phenotype is a consequence of inactive tyrosinase caused by the frameshift in the tyrosinase gene. © The American Genetic Association. 2011. All rights reserved.
Smith J.N.,University of Queensland |
Smith J.N.,Murdoch University |
Grantham H.S.,University of Queensland |
Gales N.,Australian Antarctic Division |
And 3 more authors.
Marine Ecology Progress Series | Year: 2012
During the winter months, from June to September, humpback whales Megaptera novaeangliae breed and calve in the waters of the Great Barrier Reef (GBR) after migrating north from Antarctic waters. Clearly defined wintering areas for breeding and calving comparable to those identified in other parts of the world have not yet been identified for humpback whales in the GBR Marine Park (GBRMP), mainly because of its large size, which prohibits broad-scale surveys. To identify important wintering areas in the GBRMP, we developed a predictive spatial habitat model using the Maxent modelling method and presence-only sighting data from nondedicated aerial surveys. The model was further validated using a small independent satellite tag data set of 12 whales migrating north into the GBR. The model identified restricted ranges in water depth (30 to 58 m, highest probability 49 m) and sea surface temperature (21 to 23°C, highest probability 21.8°C) and identified 2 core areas of higher probability of whale occurrence in the GBRMP, which correspond well with the movements of satellite tagged whales. We propose that one of the identified core areas is a potentially important wintering area for humpback whales and the other a migration route. With an estimated increase in port and coastal development and shipping activity in the GBRMP and a rapidly increasing population of whales recovering from whaling off the east Australian coast, the rate of human interactions with whales is likely to increase. Identifying important areas for breeding and calving is essential for the future management of human interactions with breeding humpback whales. © 2012 Inter-Research.
Broadhurst L.M.,CSIRO |
Fifield G.,Jamison Center |
Vanzella B.,Jamison Center |
Pickup M.,IST Austria
Australian Journal of Botany | Year: 2015
Vegetation clearing and land-use change have depleted many natural plant communities to the point where restoration is required. A major impediment to the success of rebuilding complex vegetation communities is having regular access to sufficient quantities of high-quality seed. Seed-production areas (SPAs) can help generate this seed, but these must be underpinned by a broad genetic base to maximise the evolutionary potential of restored populations. However, genetic bottlenecks can occur at the collection, establishment and production stages in SPAs, requiring genetic evaluation. This is especially relevant for species that may take many years before a return on SPA investment is realised. Two recently established yellow box (Eucalyptus melliodora A.Cunn. ex Schauer, Myrtaceae) SPAs were evaluated to determine whether genetic bottlenecks had occurred between seed collection and SPA establishment. No evidence was found to suggest that a significant loss of genetic diversity had occurred at this stage, although there was a significant difference in diversity between the two SPAs. Complex population genetic structure was also observed in the seed used to source the SPAs, with up to eight groups identified. Plant survival in the SPAs was influenced by seed collection location but not by SPA location and was not associated with genetic diversity. There were also no associations between genetic diversity and plant growth. These data highlighted the importance of chance events when establishing SPAs and indicated that the two yellow box SPAs are likely to provide genetically diverse seed sources for future restoration projects, especially by pooling seed from both SPAs. © CSIRO 2015.
Ansell D.,Australian National University |
Fifield G.,Jamison Center |
Munro N.,Australian National University |
Freudenberger D.,Australian National University |
Gibbons P.,Australian National University
Restoration Ecology | Year: 2016
The loss and degradation of woody vegetation in the agricultural matrix represents a key threat to biodiversity. Strategies for habitat restoration in these landscapes should maximize the biodiversity benefit for each dollar spent in order to achieve the greatest conservation outcomes with scarce funding. To be effective at scale, such strategies also need to account for the opportunity cost of restoration to the farmer. Here, we critique the Whole-of-Paddock Rehabilitation program, a novel agri-environment scheme which seeks to provide a cost-effective strategy for balancing habitat restoration and livestock grazing. The scheme involves the revegetation of large (minimum 10 ha) fields, designed to maximize biodiversity benefits and minimize costs while allowing for continued agricultural production. The objectives and design of the scheme are outlined, biodiversity and production benefits are discussed, and we contrast its cost-effectiveness with alternative habitat restoration strategies. Our analysis indicates that this scheme achieves greater restoration outcomes at approximately half the cost of windbreak-style plantings, the prevailing planting configuration in southeastern Australia, largely due to a focus on larger fields, and the avoidance of fencing costs through the use of existing farm configuration and infrastructure. This emphasis on cost-effectiveness, the offsetting of opportunity costs through incentive payments, and the use of a planting design that seeks to maximize biodiversity benefits while achieving production benefits to the farmer, has the potential to achieve conservation in productive parts of the agricultural landscape that have traditionally been "off limits" to conservation. © 2016 Society for Ecological Restoration.