Ahmad S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Current clinical pharmacology | Year: 2014
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective and frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various malignancies. However, its clinical use is hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Investigations have proved that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity occurs through mechanisms other than those mediating its antitumor effect. This theory sheds light on the development of strategies for cardioprotection without altering therapeutic effectiveness of DOX. Bioactive plant constituents of dietary supplements, traditional herbs and foods with potential health benefits can play an important role in therapeutics. This manuscript is an exhaustive review and prospect of herbal and botanical agents against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with their proposed mechanisms. The activity of herbs evaluated against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has shown number of mechanisms including apoptosis, antioxidant potential, effect on mitochondria and calcium ion regulation etc. The manuscript reveals that most of the herbal drugs studied are effective through antioxidant mechanism and only few through other major pathways such as apoptosis and iron mediated pathways in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Only limited reports are available for the prevention of DOX-induced drug resistance using botanicals. Manuscript reports a number of constituents with evident potential in prevention of DOX cardiotoxicity e.g. proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, S-allylcysteine, reseveratrol, rutoside etc. In the present communication, several herbal drugs have also been discussed, which can act through mechanisms other than antioxidant and may be evaluated as a combination therapy for prevention of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in future.
Ali F.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sultana S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Restraint stress is known to catalyse the pathogenesis of the variety of chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of repeated short-term stress (RRS) on cellular transduction apart from oxidative burden and early tumour promotional biomarkers induced due to combined exposure of trichloroethylene (TCE) and Ultra-violet radiation (UVB). RRS leads to the increase in the expression of the stress responsive cellular transduction elements NFkB-p65 and activity of iNOS in the epidermal tissues of mice after toxicant exposure. RRS augments the steep depletion of the cellular antioxidant machinery which was evidenced by the marked depletion in GSH (Glutathione and GSH dependant enzymes), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity that were observed at significance level of P < 0.001 with increase in lipid peroxidation, H 2O 2 and xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.001) in the stressed animals and down regulation of DT-diaphorase activity (P < 0.001). Since, the induction of NFkB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression mediated can lead to the hyperproliferation, we estimated a significant increment (P < 0.001) in the synthesis of polyamines in mice skin evidenced here by the ornithine decarboxylase which is the early marker of tumour promotion and further evaluated PCNA expression. All these findings cues towards the synergising ability of repeated short-term stress in the toxic response of TCE and UVB radiation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Mohsin M.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Ahmad A.,Jamia Hamdard University
Biosensors and Bioelectronics | Year: 2014
Metabolic engineering of microorganisms for production of biological molecules represent a key goal for industrial biotechnology. The metabolic engineering requires detailed knowledge of the concentrations and flux rates of metabolites and metabolic intermediates in vivo. Genetically-encoded fluorescence resonance energy transfer (FRET) sensors represent a promising technology for measuring metabolite levels and corresponding rate changes in live cells. In the present paper, we report the development of genetically-encoded FRET-based nanosensor for methionine as metabolic engineering of microbial strains for the production of l-methionine is of major interest in industrial biotechnology. In this nanosensor, methionine binding protein (MetN) from Escherichia coli (E. coli) K12 was taken and used as the reporter element of the sensor. The MetN was sandwiched between cyan fluorescent protein (CFP) and yellow fluorescent protein (YFP). Specificity, affinity, pH stability and metal effects was analyzed for the in vitro characterization of this nanosensor, named as FLIPM. The FLIPM is very specific to methionine and found to be stable with the pH within the physiological range. The calculated affinity (Kd) of FLIPM was 203μM. This nanosensor successfully monitored the intracellular level of methionine in bacterial as well as yeast cell. The data suggest that these nanosensors may be a versatile tool for studying the in vivo dynamics of methionine level non-invasively in living cells. © 2014 Elsevier B.V.
Alam P.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Abdin M.Z.,Jamia Hamdard University
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2011
Artemisinin, an endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone, is a novel antimalarial natural product isolated from Artemisia annua L. plants. The low concentrations (0.01-1.1%) of this compound in A. annua L. plants is, however, a major constraint for commercialization of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) recommended by WHO for treating malaria caused by multidrug-resistant P. falciparum sp. In this context, in vivo yield improvement programs were undertaken by us. In the present study, HMG-Co A reductase gene (hmgr) from Catharanthusroseus (L) G. Don and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads) gene from A. annua L. were over-expressed in A. annua L. plants to study their effects on artemisinin yields. The transgenic lines developed from putative transgenic regenerants were evaluated for integration and copy number of the transgenes using hptII gene probe, as it was a part of the expression cassette. The transgenic lines showed positive bands of hptII gene on Southern blots confirming the integration of transgenes. Some of the transgenic lines had single copy of the transgenes, while others had multiple copies. The expressions of hmgr and ads at the transcriptional level were also confirmed in each transgenic line employing RT-PCR assays. The HPLC analyses showed that the artemisinin contents were significantly increased in these transgenics. One of the transgenic lines, TR4, was found to contain 7.65-fold higher (1.73 mg/gDW) artemisinin than the non-transgenic plant (W). The increased artemisinin levels were found to be correlated with HMG-Co A reductase and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase enzymatic activities in the biochemical analyses. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.
Arjumand W.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sultana S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Tumor Biology | Year: 2012
The Von Hippel-Lindau (VHL) is an inherited neoplasia syndrome caused by the inactivation of VHL tumor suppressor gene, and somatic mutation of this gene has been related to the development of sporadic clear cell renal carcinoma. The affected individuals are at higher risk for the development of tumor in other organs, which include pheochromocytomas, retinal angioma, pancreatic cysts, and CNS hemangioblastomas. The VHL mRNA encodes a protein (pVHL) that contains 213 amino acid residues which migrate with an apparent molecular weight of 24 to 30 kDa. The VHL gene protein has multiple functions that are linked to tumor suppression, but the best recognized and evidently linked to the development of renal cell carcinoma (RCC) is inhibition of hypoxia-inducible factor (HIF), as well as plays a role in targeting HIF for ubiquitin-mediated degradation. Aberrations in VHL's function, either through mutation or promoter hypermethylation, lead to the accumulation of HIF, which will transcriptionally upregulate a sequence of hypoxia responsive genes, including epidermal growth factor, vascular endothelial growth factor, platelet-derived growth factor, and other proangiogenic factors, resulting in upregulated blood vessel growth, one of the prerequisites of a tumor. HIF plays a critical role in pVHL-defective tumor formation, raising the possibility that drugs directed against HIF or its downstream targets (such as vascular endothelial growth factor) may one day play a role in the treatment of RCC. Moreover, a number of drugs have been developed that target HIF-responsive gene products, many of these targeted therapies have demonstrated significant activity in kidney cancer clinical trials and signify substantive advances in the treatment of this disease. © 2011 International Society of Oncology and BioMarkers (ISOBM).
Waseem M.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Parvez S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013
Anticancer agents help to suppress cellular damage but subsequently can lead to side effects and toxic manifestations. Toxicity of anticancer drug cisplatin (CP) is attributed to its interference of biological enzymes in metabolic pathways. Mitochondria have been recognized as targets in various kinds of toxicity including neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. Curcumin (CMN) is a known cytoprotectant with comprehensive anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the damage caused by CP and its abrogation by using antioxidant potential of CMN. CP caused a significant enhancement in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and protein carbonyl (PC) content. Pre-treatment of rat with CMN significantly restored the mitochondrial LPO levels and PC content. It also replenished the CP induced modulatory effects on altered enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in both brain and liver mitochondria. It is suggested that CMN, by attenuating mitochondrial oxidative stress, holds promise that can decline CP induced adverse effects in brain and liver. CMN should be investigated as a potential safe and remarkable approach in attenuating the adverse effects induced by CP-related toxicants. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Puranik S.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research |
Puranik S.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sahu P.P.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research |
Srivastava P.S.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Prasad M.,National Institute of Plant Genome Research
Trends in Plant Science | Year: 2012
The plant-specific NAC (NAM, ATAF1,2 and CUC2) proteins constitute a major transcription factor family renowned for their roles in several developmental programs. Despite their highly conserved DNA-binding domains, their remarkable diversification across plants reflects their numerous functions. Lately, they have received much attention as regulators in various stress signaling pathways which may include interplay of phytohormones. This review summarizes the recent progress in research on NACs highlighting the proteins' potential for engineering stress tolerance against various abiotic and biotic challenges. We discuss regulatory components and targets of NAC proteins in the context of their prospective role for crop improvement strategies via biotechnological intervention. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Tahir M.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sultana S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Alcohol and Alcoholism | Year: 2011
Aims: Hepato- and nephro-protective efficacy of chrysin was investigated against sequential increase of ethanol intake on the alteration of alcohol metabolizing enzymes-alcohol dehydrogenase (ADH), cytochrome P450 2E1 (CYP 2E1), xanthine oxidase (XO) and oxidant/anti-oxidant status. Methods: Thirty female Wistar rats segregated into five groups, each with six animals, were put to different doses. Group I as control followed by Group II, III and IV were treated with ethanol (5,8,10 and 12g/kg body weight per week respectively) for 4 weeks. While Group III and IV were administered with chrysin at 20 mg (D1) and 40 mg/kg body weight (D2), respectively, prior to ethanol administration. Group V was given only chrysin (D2). Various oxidative stress and ethanol metabolizing enzymes were estimated in hepatic and renal tissues. Results: Ethanol administration significantly induced CYP 2E1, ADH and XO in liver and kidneys, respectively, along with an enhancement in levels of malondialdehyde and serum alanine aminotransferase, aspartate aminotransferase, blood urea nitrogen, creatinine and lactate dehydrogenase when compared with the control group and this enhancement is significantly normalized with chrysin administration. Oxidative stress markers: reduced glutathione, glutathione peroxidase, catalase and glutathione reductase were significantly (P < 0.001) depleted in the ethanol-treated group, while chrysin administration significantly restored all of these. Only chrysin administration did not show any adverse effect. Conclusion: Results demonstrate that chrysin administration prevents the liver and kidney of Wistar rats against oxidative damage during chronic ethanol consumption by inhibiting the activities of ADH, CYP 2E1, XO and catalase. © The Author 2011. Published by Oxford University Press on behalf of the Medical Council on Alcohol. All rights reserved.
Arjumand W.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sultana S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Life Sciences | Year: 2011
Aims: Glycyrrhizic acid (GA) is a main sweetening component of licorice roots and has been found to be associated with multiple therapeutic properties. In this study, we used GA as a protective agent against the clastogenic and nephrotoxic effects of cisplatin (CP). Main methods: Mice were given a prophylactic treatment of GA orally at doses of 75 and 150 mg/kg body weight for seven consecutive days before the administration of a single intraperitoneal dose of CP at 7 mg/kg body weight. The modulatory effects of GA on CP-induced nephrotoxicity and genotoxicity were investigated by assaying oxidative stress biomarkers, lipid peroxidation, serum kidney toxicity markers, DNA fragmentation, alkaline unwinding, and micronuclei and by histopathological examination of the kidneys. Key findings: A single intraperitoneal dose of cisplatin in mice enhanced renal lipid peroxidation, xanthine oxidase, and H2O2 generation; depleted glutathione content, activities of the anti-oxidant enzymes glutathione peroxidase, glutathione reductase, catalase, glutathione-S-transferase and quinone reductase; induced DNA strand breaks and micronucleus formation (p < 0.001); and majorly disrupted normal kidney architecture. Pretreatment with GA prevented oxidative stress by restoring the levels of antioxidant enzymes at both doses. A significant dose-dependent decrease in DNA fragmentation, micronucleus formation (p < 0.05), and the kidney toxicity markers BUN (p < 0.001), creatinine (p < 0.01), and LDH (p < 0.001) and restoration of normal kidney histology was observed. Significance: Our study supports the claim that the phytochemical GA has the potential to attenuate the side effects of anticancer drug overdose. © 2011 Elsevier Inc. All rights reserved.
Jamia Hamdard University and Arbro Pharmaceuticals Ltd. | Date: 2011-04-26
The present invention discloses a pharmaceutical composition in the form of self nano emulsifying drug delivery formulation comprising curcuminoids. The pharmaceutical composition of the present invention shows an enhanced drug loading ability, better stability and an improved bioavailability. The composition of the present invention comprises of a pharmaceutically effective amount of a curcuminoid, an oil phase, a surfactant and a co surfactant.