Ahmad S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Current clinical pharmacology | Year: 2014
Doxorubicin (DOX) is an effective and frequently used chemotherapeutic agent for various malignancies. However, its clinical use is hampered due to the development of cardiotoxicity. Investigations have proved that DOX-induced cardiotoxicity occurs through mechanisms other than those mediating its antitumor effect. This theory sheds light on the development of strategies for cardioprotection without altering therapeutic effectiveness of DOX. Bioactive plant constituents of dietary supplements, traditional herbs and foods with potential health benefits can play an important role in therapeutics. This manuscript is an exhaustive review and prospect of herbal and botanical agents against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity with their proposed mechanisms. The activity of herbs evaluated against DOX-induced cardiotoxicity has shown number of mechanisms including apoptosis, antioxidant potential, effect on mitochondria and calcium ion regulation etc. The manuscript reveals that most of the herbal drugs studied are effective through antioxidant mechanism and only few through other major pathways such as apoptosis and iron mediated pathways in DOX-induced cardiotoxicity. Only limited reports are available for the prevention of DOX-induced drug resistance using botanicals. Manuscript reports a number of constituents with evident potential in prevention of DOX cardiotoxicity e.g. proanthocyanidins, epigallocatechin-3-gallate, S-allylcysteine, reseveratrol, rutoside etc. In the present communication, several herbal drugs have also been discussed, which can act through mechanisms other than antioxidant and may be evaluated as a combination therapy for prevention of DOX-induced cardiotoxicity in future.
Rasool S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Pakistan Journal of Botany | Year: 2013
The objectives of this study were to estimate the genetic diversity and to evaluate the relationship between eight chickpea genotypes that is the valuable source for breeding. Chickpea seed is a good source of carbohydrates and proteins, constituting 80% of the total dry seed weight. The variable response of chickpea genotypes were characterized by using the 15 RAPD primers. The total numbers of amplification products generated were 915, and among them 898 were found to be polymorphic. The number of amplification products ranged from 28-81 from 15 arbitrary primers. The molecular weight of the generated bands in the present study ranged from 100-2968 bp. Primers BG-30, C and OPA-02 generated the maximum number of amplified products. Minimum number of 28 RAPD products were obtained with OPA-04. 16 RAPD products were recorded as unique or species specific and resulted in 98.1% of polymorphism.
Waseem M.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Parvez S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Food and Chemical Toxicology | Year: 2013
Anticancer agents help to suppress cellular damage but subsequently can lead to side effects and toxic manifestations. Toxicity of anticancer drug cisplatin (CP) is attributed to its interference of biological enzymes in metabolic pathways. Mitochondria have been recognized as targets in various kinds of toxicity including neurotoxicity and hepatotoxicity that can lead to neoplastic disease. Curcumin (CMN) is a known cytoprotectant with comprehensive anti-inflammatory and anti-cancerous properties. The aim of the present study was to evaluate the damage caused by CP and its abrogation by using antioxidant potential of CMN. CP caused a significant enhancement in the mitochondrial lipid peroxidation (LPO) levels and protein carbonyl (PC) content. Pre-treatment of rat with CMN significantly restored the mitochondrial LPO levels and PC content. It also replenished the CP induced modulatory effects on altered enzymatic and non-enzymatic antioxidants in both brain and liver mitochondria. It is suggested that CMN, by attenuating mitochondrial oxidative stress, holds promise that can decline CP induced adverse effects in brain and liver. CMN should be investigated as a potential safe and remarkable approach in attenuating the adverse effects induced by CP-related toxicants. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd.
Ali F.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Sultana S.,Jamia Hamdard University
Molecular and Cellular Biochemistry | Year: 2012
Restraint stress is known to catalyse the pathogenesis of the variety of chronic inflammatory disorders. The present study was designed to evaluate the effect of repeated short-term stress (RRS) on cellular transduction apart from oxidative burden and early tumour promotional biomarkers induced due to combined exposure of trichloroethylene (TCE) and Ultra-violet radiation (UVB). RRS leads to the increase in the expression of the stress responsive cellular transduction elements NFkB-p65 and activity of iNOS in the epidermal tissues of mice after toxicant exposure. RRS augments the steep depletion of the cellular antioxidant machinery which was evidenced by the marked depletion in GSH (Glutathione and GSH dependant enzymes), superoxide dismutase and catalase activity that were observed at significance level of P < 0.001 with increase in lipid peroxidation, H 2O 2 and xanthine oxidase activity (P < 0.001) in the stressed animals and down regulation of DT-diaphorase activity (P < 0.001). Since, the induction of NFkB-p65 and inducible nitric oxide synthase expression mediated can lead to the hyperproliferation, we estimated a significant increment (P < 0.001) in the synthesis of polyamines in mice skin evidenced here by the ornithine decarboxylase which is the early marker of tumour promotion and further evaluated PCNA expression. All these findings cues towards the synergising ability of repeated short-term stress in the toxic response of TCE and UVB radiation. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC.
Alam P.,Jamia Hamdard University |
Abdin M.Z.,Jamia Hamdard University
Plant Cell Reports | Year: 2011
Artemisinin, an endoperoxide sesquiterpene lactone, is a novel antimalarial natural product isolated from Artemisia annua L. plants. The low concentrations (0.01-1.1%) of this compound in A. annua L. plants is, however, a major constraint for commercialization of artemisinin-based combination therapies (ACTs) recommended by WHO for treating malaria caused by multidrug-resistant P. falciparum sp. In this context, in vivo yield improvement programs were undertaken by us. In the present study, HMG-Co A reductase gene (hmgr) from Catharanthusroseus (L) G. Don and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase (ads) gene from A. annua L. were over-expressed in A. annua L. plants to study their effects on artemisinin yields. The transgenic lines developed from putative transgenic regenerants were evaluated for integration and copy number of the transgenes using hptII gene probe, as it was a part of the expression cassette. The transgenic lines showed positive bands of hptII gene on Southern blots confirming the integration of transgenes. Some of the transgenic lines had single copy of the transgenes, while others had multiple copies. The expressions of hmgr and ads at the transcriptional level were also confirmed in each transgenic line employing RT-PCR assays. The HPLC analyses showed that the artemisinin contents were significantly increased in these transgenics. One of the transgenic lines, TR4, was found to contain 7.65-fold higher (1.73 mg/gDW) artemisinin than the non-transgenic plant (W). The increased artemisinin levels were found to be correlated with HMG-Co A reductase and amorpha-4,11-diene synthase enzymatic activities in the biochemical analyses. © 2011 Springer-Verlag.