James Madison University is a public coeducational research university located in Harrisonburg, Virginia, United States. Founded in 1908 as the State Normal and Industrial School for Women at Harrisonburg, the institution was renamed Madison College in 1938, in honor of President James Madison, and named James Madison University in 1977. The university is situated in the Shenandoah Valley, with the campus quadrangle located on South Main Street in Harrisonburg. Wikipedia.
Toplak M.E.,York University |
West R.F.,James Madison University |
Stanovich K.E.,University of Toronto
Journal of Child Psychology and Psychiatry and Allied Disciplines | Year: 2013
Background: Both performance-based and rating measures are commonly used to index executive function in clinical and neuropsychological assessments. They are intended to index the same broad underlying mental construct of executive function. The association between these two types of measures was investigated in the current article. Method and Results: We examined the association between performance-based and rating measures of executive function in 20 studies. These studies included 13 child and 7 adult samples, which were derived from 7 clinical, 2 nonclinical, and 11 combined clinical and nonclinical samples. Only 68 (24%) of the 286 relevant correlations reported in these studies were statistically significant, and the overall median correlation was only.19. Conclusions: It was concluded that performance-based and rating measures of executive function assess different underlying mental constructs. We discuss how these two types of measures appear to capture different levels of cognition, namely, the efficiency of cognitive abilities and success in goal pursuit. Clinical implications of using performance-based and rating measures of executive function are discussed, including the use of these measures in assessing ADHD. © 2012 Association for Child and Adolescent Mental Health.
Daniel D.B.,James Madison University |
Woody W.D.,University of Northern Colorado
Computers and Education | Year: 2013
While e-book sales continue to increase, electronic textbooks are not very popular with college students. This may be due to the fact that e-textbooks are read for different reasons and with different strategies than are e-books. Although previous research has documented this lack of preference for e-textbooks, student performance and use of electronic texts has yet to be thoroughly investigated, especially in naturalistic settings. This study examines students' use and performance on a variety of print and electronic formats in both laboratory and at-home conditions. Although students scored similarly across formats and conditions, reading time was significantly higher in the electronic conditions with this difference increasing for the home conditions. Similarly, self-reports of multi-tasking were significantly higher for electronic conditions in the home condition, possibly accounting for the disparities in reading time. We conclude by urging caution in the rush to assume that electronic textbooks are equivalent substitutes for traditional textbooks and argue for further investigation into the unique ways that students may interact with electronic texts to promote more effective design. © 2012 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Ludlow C.L.,James Madison University
Current Opinion in Otolaryngology and Head and Neck Surgery | Year: 2010
Purpose of Review: To assess current information regarding the physiological effects of transcutaneous electrical stimulation (TES) on the neck and current evidence regarding the clinical effects of adding TES to dysphagia rehabilitation. Recent Findings: Physiological studies have demonstrated that when electrical stimulation is applied on the throat it will lower the hyo-laryngeal complex and resist elevation needed for airway protection during swallowing. Submental TES has not been found to effectively elevate the hyo-laryngeal complex. Recent controlled clinical trials have had mixed results. Most indicate that TES is beneficial in the treatment of dysphagia; however, studies differ on whether these effects are greater than, equal to, or less than traditional therapy alone for the rehabilitation of swallowing. Summary: Currently TES for dysphagia is one of several tools available to the clinician for the rehabilitation of dysphagia. The two controlled clinical trials demonstrate that use of TES in dysphagia therapy is equivalent to traditional dysphagia therapy and of greater benefit only on one of several measures in one study. TES should be used only in patients who can overcome the resistive lowering of the hyo-laryngeal complex induced by TES which could place severely affected patients at greater risk of penetration. © 2010 Wolters Kluwer Health | Lippincott Williams & Wilkins.
Gallagher S.R.,James Madison University
Technovation | Year: 2012
Markets and industries that require their products to interconnect or utilize important complements are becoming increasingly common. From communication networks to social web sites, network effects have shown themselves to be powerful forces. However, the same feedback effects that make these industries so interesting also makes them difficult to study as often, without an accepted standard, the industry never germinates and grows. This paper takes and refines an existing model for competition in these types of industries and applies it to the recently concluded contest between Sonys Blu-ray and Toshibas HD-DVD in blue laser DVDs. Analysis of this standards battle suggests some interesting findings. First, in this case corporate strategy provided a decisive advantage to the Blu-ray alliance led by Sony. Sony appears to have won the battle in the U.S. by exploiting a superior corporate strategy to not only provide complementary products as called for by the traditional model (e.g. Hill, 1997) but also by utilizing its technology as a component in an ancillary product, its Playstation 3. Second, a heuristic is proposed for considering indirect network effects to complement Metcalfs Law for direct network effects. Finally, Sony paid a high a price to win this standards battle. © 2011 Elsevier Ltd. All rights reserved.
Parks-Leduc L.,James Madison University |
Feldman G.,Hong Kong University of Science and Technology |
Bardi A.,Royal Holloway, University of London
Personality and Social Psychology Review | Year: 2015
Personality traits and personal values are important psychological characteristics, serving as important predictors of many outcomes. Yet, they are frequently studied separately, leaving the field with a limited understanding of their relationships. We review existing perspectives regarding the nature of the relationships between traits and values and provide a conceptual underpinning for understanding the strength of these relationships. Using 60 studies, we present a meta-analysis of the relationships between the Five-Factor Model (FFM) of personality traits and the Schwartz values, and demonstrate consistent and theoretically meaningful relationships. However, these relationships were not generally large, demonstrating that traits and values are distinct constructs. We find support for our premise that more cognitively based traits are more strongly related to values and more emotionally based traits are less strongly related to values. Findings also suggest that controlling for personal scale-use tendencies in values is advisable. © 2014 by the Society for Personality and Social Psychology, Inc.