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Johnson City, TN, United States

Krishnaswamy G.,East Tennessee State University | Krishnaswamy G.,James illen Va Medical Center
Inflammation and Allergy - Drug Targets | Year: 2012

Urticaria can be a chronic and debilitating affliction and is a relatively common disorder affecting between 10- 20% of the population. Common causes include reactions to medication, food allergen, physical stimuli and venoms. Urticaria can be acute or chronic. Chronic urticaria lasts for more than 6 weeks and is commonly difficult to treat. The use of immunosuppressive agents for this disorder when antihistamines fail can result in significant morbidity. Recent advances in the pathogenesis, etiology, diagnosis and management of chronic urticaria have led to new paradigms in treatment of this disorder. Cyclosporine is often the most effective but has some unique adverse effects that may prevent it from being used in some patients. The use of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) has proven effective in a variety of reports and we will review the mechanisms likely involved in the successful control of urticarial symptoms by immunomodulating therapy using IVIG. In this review, we will discuss mechanisms and pathogenesis of urticaria and the specific role of intravenous immunoglobulin (IVIG) in this disorder, especially in refractory or steroid-dependent cases. © 2012 Bentham Science Publishers. Source

Yao Z.Q.,James illen Va Medical Center | Yao Z.Q.,East Tennessee State University | Moorman J.P.,James illen Va Medical Center | Moorman J.P.,East Tennessee State University
Archivum Immunologiae et Therapiae Experimentalis | Year: 2013

Given the shared risk factors for transmission, co-infection of hepatitis B virus (HBV) with hepatitis C virus (HCV) and/or human immunodeficiency virus (HIV) is quite common, and may lead to increases in morbidity and mortality. As such, HBV vaccine is recommended as the primary means to prevent HBV super-infection in HCV- and/or HIV-infected individuals. However, vaccine response (sero-conversion with a hepatitis B surface antibody titer >10 IU/L) in this setting is often blunted, with poor response rates to standard HBV vaccinations in virally infected individuals when compared with the healthy subjects. This phenomenon also occurs to other vaccines in adults, such as pneumococcal and influenza vaccines, in other immunocompromised hosts who are really at risk for opportunistic infections, such as individuals with hemodialysis, transplant, and malignancy. In this review, we summarize the underlying mechanisms involving vaccine failure in these conditions, focusing on immune exhaustion and immune senescence - two distinct signaling pathways regulating cell function and fate. We raise the possibility that blocking these negative signaling pathways might improve success rates of immunizations in the setting of chronic viral infection. © 2013 L. Hirszfeld Institute of Immunology and Experimental Therapy, Wroclaw, Poland. Source

Song E.,East Tennessee State University | Jaishankar G.B.,East Tennessee State University | Saleh H.,East Tennessee State University | Jithpratuck W.,East Tennessee State University | And 3 more authors.
Clinical and Molecular Allergy | Year: 2011

Chronic Granulomatous Disease is the most commonly encountered immunodeficiency involving the phagocyte, and is characterized by repeated infections with bacterial and fungal pathogens, as well as the formation of granulomas in tissue. The disease is the result of a disorder of the NADPH oxidase system, culminating in an inability of the phagocyte to generate superoxide, leading to the defective killing of pathogenic organisms. This can lead to infections with Staphylococcus aureus, Psedomonas species, Nocardia species, and fungi (such as Aspergillus species and Candida albicans). Involvement of vital or large organs can contribute to morbidity and/or mortality in the affected patients. Major advances have occurred in the diagnosis and treatment of this disease, with the potential for gene therapy or stem cell transplantation looming on the horizon. © 2011 Song et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

Youssef D.,James illen Va Medical Center | Ilyas S.,James illen Medical Center | Chaudhary H.,James illen Medical Center | Al-Abbadi M.A.,James illen Medical Center
Head and Neck Pathology | Year: 2011

In this case report, we describe an unusual case of mycobacterial associated inflammatory pseudotumor that occurred in a patient with a previous history of cocaine abuse. We discuss inflammatory pseudotumor (IPT) in general and emphasize the rare entity where an associated mycobacterial infection is seen. The histogenesis is not yet completely understood. The lesion can pose challenges for practicing pathologists and a misdiagnosis of malignancy can occur at multiple facets. A discussion about the differential diagnosis and clues to make the distinction is presented. In addition to spindle cell proliferation, the presence of a background of mixed inflammatory cell infiltrate and foamy macrophages are clues to make the diagnosis. In the case of mycobacteria associated IPT, Acid Fast Bacilli (AFB) stains will easily highlight the organisms confirming the diagnosis. © 2011 Springer Science+Business Media, LLC. Source

Pate M.B.,East Tennessee State University | Smith J.K.,East Tennessee State University | Chi D.S.,East Tennessee State University | Krishnaswamy G.,East Tennessee State University | Krishnaswamy G.,James illen Va Medical Center
Clinical and Molecular Allergy | Year: 2010

Background: Altered levels of Immunoglobulin E (IgE) represent a dysregulation of IgE synthesis and may be seen in a variety of immunological disorders. The object of this review is to summarize the historical and molecular aspects of IgE synthesis and the disorders associated with dysregulation of IgE production.Methods: Articles published in Medline/PubMed were searched with the keyword Immunoglobulin E and specific terms such as class switch recombination, deficiency and/or specific disease conditions (atopy, neoplasia, renal disease, myeloma, etc.). The selected papers included reviews, case reports, retrospective reviews and molecular mechanisms. Studies involving both sexes and all ages were included in the analysis.Results: Both very low and elevated levels of IgE may be seen in clinical practice. Major advancements have been made in our understanding of the molecular basis of IgE class switching including roles for T cells, cytokines and T regulatory (or Treg) cells in this process. Dysregulation of this process may result in either elevated IgE levels or IgE deficiency.Conclusion: Evaluation of a patient with elevated IgE must involve a detailed differential diagnosis and consideration of various immunological and non-immunological disorders. The use of appropriate tests will allow the correct diagnosis to be made. This can often assist in the development of tailored treatments. © 2010 Pate et al; licensee BioMed Central Ltd. Source

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