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Xie A.,James B Skatrud Laboratory Of Pulmonary And Sleep Medicine | Xie A.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | Teodorescu M.,James B Skatrud Laboratory Of Pulmonary And Sleep Medicine | Teodorescu M.,University of Wisconsin - Madison | And 8 more authors.
Journal of Applied Physiology | Year: 2013

To determine how the obstructive sleep apnea (OSA) patient's pathophysiological traits predict the success of the treatment aimed at stabilization or increase in respiratory motor outputs, we studied 26 newly diagnosed OSA patients [apnea-hypopnea index (AHI) 42 ± 5 events/h with 92% of apneas obstructive] who were treated with O2 supplementation, an isocapnic rebreathing system in which CO2 was added only during hyperpnea to prevent transient hypocapnia, and a continuous rebreathing system. We also measured each patient's controller gain below eupnea [change in minute volume/change in end-tidal PCO2 (ΔVE/ΔPETCO 2)], CO2 reserve (eupnea-apnea threshold PETCO 2), and plant gain (ΔPETCO2/ΔVE), as well as passive upper airway closing pressure (Pcrit). With isocapnic rebreathing, 14/26 reduced their AHI to 31 ± 6% of control (P < 0.01) (responder); 12/26 did not show significant change (nonresponder). The responders vs. nonresponders had a greater controller gain (6.5 ± 1.7 vs. 2.1 ± 0.2 l·min-1·mmHg-1, P < 0.01) and a smaller CO2 reserve (1.9 ± 0.3 vs. 4.3 ± 0.4 mmHg, P < 0.01) with no differences in Pcrit (-0.1 ± 1.2 vs. 0.2 ± 0.9 cmH2O, P > 0.05). Hypercapnic rebreathing (+4.2 ± 1 mmHg PETCO2) reduced AHI to 15 ± 4% of control (P < 0.001) in 17/21 subjects with a wide range of CO2 reserve. Hyperoxia (SaO 2 ~95-98%) reduced AHI to 36 ± 11% of control in 7/19 OSA patients tested. We concluded that stabilizing central respiratory motor output via prevention of transient hypocapnia prevents most OSA in selected patients with a high chemosensitivity and a collapsible upper airway, whereas increasing respiratory motor output via moderate hypercapnia eliminates OSA in most patients with a wider range of chemosensitivity and CO2 reserve. Reducing chemosensitivity via hyperoxia had a limited and unpredictable effect on OSA. Copyright © 2013 the American Physiological Society.

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